If you want to set a specific canonical URL for a given node, just edit your node and uncheck “Generate automatic URL alias” in the URL alias section and you’ll be able to write your own URL.
You might need
Path module to be enabled to do that.
If you want to have specific automatic patterns for your URL alias depending on the type of node, then you will need the module
Pathauto (https://www.drupal.org/project/pathauto) ; just enable it and configure your patterns for each type of node