adoptable storage – How can I clone an adopted SD card?

I adopted an SD card as internal memory and one day it just suddenly stopped working.

With tremendous help from the member @alecxs I was able to make an img copy of it and browse the files in it. Here is some of the basics of how that was done.

I’m not sure why it failed on the phone since if it was a physical problem with the SD card then shouldn’t it NOT have been possible to read or decrypt it?

In any case, I have another (new) SD card and I would like to clone the old one on it so that I can effectively start using it as if it was the old one…basically everything to be as it was pre-SD card failure.

Is there a way to do that? How?

I’m able to see my photos which is a HUGE relief but my concern now is the app data that is un-viewable unless it’s put back in the phone and opened with it’s app.