blockchain – Did Bitcoin founders know Bitcoin is not scalable at Base Layer?

Given Bitcoin takes 45 min per Transaction, and consumes lot of energy (around 1 million Visa transactions), https://digiconomist.net/bitcoin-energy-consumption/

This is more of a history question,
Did Bitcoin founders (Satoshi Nakamoto) know that Bitcoin would not be Scaleable?

Did they only create a Base Layer on purpose, and expect other people to create second derivative layers like Lightning Network?

Currently Bitcoin is not economic, without the key Lightning network, and certain provinces in China and other countries are attempting to shut down nodes. Lightning network has taken 10 years to release, since Bitcoin creation, and environmental politicians are starting to complain about power consumption. Just wondering if the founders, had foresight about this, and if they noted future goals for Bitcoin to work. I did not see it in their whitepaper. https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf