c++ – Binary-Decimal-Hexadecimal converter – Code Review Stack Exchange

I’m a fairly new programmer and have been learning c++ for about 8 months now. I’ve written a program that can take either binary, hexadecimal, and decimal inputs and convert them to the other two values. For example, if the user inputs a binary value, then the program will output both decimal and hexadecimal conversions of the number. Unfortunately, the colouring of the output is unsatisfactory due to the fact that chaning colours in cmd changes the colour off all texts in that terminal. Instead of using the cmd colour commands, I used a custom header file provided by my teacher that didn’t change the colour of all the texts in the terminal. Instead of adding the header file, I replaced all the custom colour commands with cmd colour commands, for convinience. Besides all that, it would mean a lot if you could review my code and point out on where I could improve on. Please keep in mind that I’m still new to programming in general and wouldn’t understand some “programmer/coding” vocabulary.

Thank you.

#include <iostream>
#include <cmath>
#include <string>
#include <conio.h>
using namespace std;

long long num_limit;//user input for decimal
long long hex_remainder;//hexadecimal remainder
long long hexint = 0;//integer value for user input
char user_inp;//identifier for user input
bool userinput = true;//validator for illegal input
string hex_assign;//assiging hex remainder string value
string bitassign = "";//identifier assigning binary values to hex

void load()//loading effect
{
int g, c;//loop counter
cout << " ";
system("color 07");
for (g = 1; g <= 80; g++)
{
    for (c = 1; c <= 2850000; c++) {}
    cout << "*";
}
//used in void bit(), void hex(), and void dec()
}//load
void integer_only()
{
while (!num_limit > 0)//checking for illegal input
{
    cin.clear();
    cin.ignore(1000, 'n');
    system("color 04");
    cout << " Invalid input...try again: ";
    system("color");
    cin >> num_limit;//user input
    cin.ignore(1000, 'n');
}
//used in void bit(), void hex(), and void dec()
}//integer_only
void hexassign()
{
switch (hex_remainder)//using <remainder> as a switch to assign hex characters
{
case 0: hex_assign = "0"; break;
case 1: hex_assign = "1"; break;
case 2: hex_assign = "2"; break;
case 3: hex_assign = "3"; break;
case 4: hex_assign = "4"; break;
case 5: hex_assign = "5"; break;
case 6: hex_assign = "6"; break;
case 7: hex_assign = "7"; break;
case 8: hex_assign = "8"; break;
case 9: hex_assign = "9"; break;
case 10: hex_assign = "A"; break;
case 11: hex_assign = "B"; break;
case 12: hex_assign = "C"; break;
case 13: hex_assign = "D"; break;
case 14: hex_assign = "E"; break;
case 15: hex_assign = "F"; break;
}
//used in void bit() and void dec()
}//hexassign
void hex_input_validator()
{
switch (user_inp)
{
case '0':userinput = true; break;
case '1':userinput = true; break;
case '2':userinput = true; break;
case '3':userinput = true; break;
case '4':userinput = true; break;
case '5':userinput = true; break;
case '6':userinput = true; break;
case '7':userinput = true; break;
case '8':userinput = true; break;
case '9':userinput = true; break;
case 'A':userinput = true; break;
case 'B':userinput = true; break;
case 'C':userinput = true; break;
case 'D':userinput = true; break;
case 'E':userinput = true; break;
case 'F':userinput = true; break;
default: userinput = false;
}
//used in void hex()
}//hexinput_validator
void hex_binary_assign()
{

switch (user_inp)
{
case '0':bitassign = "0000 "; break;
case '1':bitassign = "0001 "; break;
case '2':bitassign = "0010 "; break;
case '3':bitassign = "0011 "; break;
case '4':bitassign = "0100 "; break;
case '5':bitassign = "0101 "; break;
case '6':bitassign = "0110 "; break;
case '7':bitassign = "0111 "; break;
case '8':bitassign = "1000 "; break;
case '9':bitassign = "1001 "; break;
case 'A':bitassign = "1010 "; break;
case 'B':bitassign = "1011 "; break;
case 'C':bitassign = "1100 "; break;
case 'D':bitassign = "1101 "; break;
case 'E':bitassign = "1110 "; break;
case 'F':bitassign = "1111 "; break;
}
//used in void hex()
}//hex_binary_assign
void hex_int_assign()
{
switch (user_inp)
{
case '0':hexint = 0; break;
case '1':hexint = 1; break;
case '2':hexint = 2; break;
case '3':hexint = 3; break;
case '4':hexint = 4; break;
case '5':hexint = 5; break;
case '6':hexint = 6; break;
case '7':hexint = 7; break;
case '8':hexint = 8; break;
case '9':hexint = 9; break;
case 'A':hexint = 10; break;
case 'B':hexint = 11; break;
case 'C':hexint = 12; break;
case 'D':hexint = 13; break;
case 'E':hexint = 14; break;
case 'F':hexint = 15; break;
}
//used in void hex()
}//hex_int_assign
void bit()//binary input
{
char user_input = 'x';//user input (1/0)
int num;//identifier assigned integer value for user input
int i, v, y;//loop counter
long long total_dec;//decimal value 
long long dec_count = 0;//total decimal value
long long quotient = 0;//quotient for bimary
long long decimal;//identifier to be used to find decimal value
string hex_val = "";//total hex value in one string
bool hex = true;//validator for hex calculation

system("color 09");
cout << " Enter the total number of digits: ";
system("color");
cin >> num_limit;//user input
cin.ignore(1000, 'n');
integer_only();//checking for illegal input
cout << endl;//blank line
y = num_limit;//assigning max index value value
for (i = 0; i < num_limit; i++)
{
    system("color 09");
    cout << " Num #" << i + 1 << ": ";
    system("color");
    user_input = _getwche();//user input
    cout << endl;//blank line
    switch (user_input)
    {
    case '0':num = 0; break;
    case '1':num = 1; break;
    }
    while (user_input != '1' && user_input != '0')//checking for illegal input
    {
        system("color 07");
        cout << " Invalid input...try again: ";
        system("color");
        user_input = _getwche();//user input
        cout << endl;//blank line
        switch (user_input)
        {
        case '0':num = 0; break;
        case '1':num = 1; break;
        }
    }
    total_dec = num * pow(2, (y - 1));//y-1 so that calculation is in reverse order
    dec_count += total_dec;
    y--;
}
decimal = dec_count;
while (hex)//will run while <hex> is true
{
    quotient = decimal / 16;
    hex_remainder = decimal % 16;
    decimal = quotient;
    hexassign();//assiging hex value
    hex_val += hex_assign;
    if (quotient == 0) { hex = false; }//hex is false when quotient is 0
}
system("cls");//clearing screen
load();//calling loading effect
cout << endl;//blank line
system("color 06");
cout << " Decimal value =========> ";
system("color");
cout << dec_count << endl;
system("color 06");
cout << " Hexadecimal value =====> ";
system("color");
for (v = 1; v <= hex_val.length(); v++)//printing backwards 
{
    cout << hex_val(hex_val.length() - v);
}
cout << endl;//blank line
}//bit
void hex()//hexadecimal input
{

int k, o;//loop counter
long long decimalvalue = 0;//total decimal value
long long totaldec = 0;//decimal value
string total_bin = "";//all binary values in one string

system("color 09");
cout << " Enter the total number of digits: ";
system("color");
cin >> num_limit;//user input
cin.ignore(1000, 'n');
integer_only();//checking for illegal input
cout << endl;//blank line
o = num_limit;//assigning loop counter its value
for (k = 1; k <= num_limit; k++)
{
    system("color 09");
    cout << " Enter num #" << k << ": ";
    system("color");
    user_inp = toupper(_getwche());//user input
    cout << endl;//blank line

    hex_input_validator();//validating illegal input
    if (userinput)
    {
        hex_int_assign();//assigning a integer value
        hex_binary_assign();//assiging a binary value
    }
    else {
        while (!userinput)
        {
            system("color 04");
            cout << " Invalid input...try again: ";
            system("color");
            user_inp = toupper(_getwche());//user input
            cout << endl;//blank line

            hex_int_assign();//assigning ineger value
            hex_binary_assign();//assiging a binary value
            hex_input_validator();//validating illegal input
        }
    }
    total_bin += bitassign;
    totaldec = hexint * pow(16, (o - 1));//o-1 for answer in reverse order
    decimalvalue += totaldec;
    o--;
}
system("cls");//clearing screen
load();//calling loading effect
cout << endl;//blank line
system("color 06");
cout << " Decimal value ======> ";
system("color");
cout << decimalvalue << endl;
system("color 06");
cout << " Binary value =======> ";
system("color");
cout << total_bin;
cout << endl;//blank line
}//hex
void dec()//decimal input
{
long long bit_quotient;//binary quotient
long long bit_remainder;//binary remainder
long long bit_decimal;//identier to be used with binary calculation with the value of user input
int f, q;//loop counter
long long hex_quotient;//hexadecimal quotient
long long hex_decimal;//identifier to be used with hex calculation with the value of user input
string total_hex_string;//all hex string values in one string
string bit_string;//assigning binary remainder, binary values
string total_bit_string;//all binary values in one string
bool hex = true;//validator for hex calculation
bool bit = true;//validator for binary calculation

system("color 09");
cout << " Enter number: ";
system("color");
cin >> num_limit;//user input
cin.ignore(1000, 'n');
integer_only();//checking for illegal input
bit_decimal = num_limit;
hex_decimal = num_limit;
while (bit)
{
    bit_quotient = bit_decimal / 2;
    bit_remainder = bit_decimal % 2;
    bit_decimal = bit_quotient;
    switch (bit_remainder)
    {
    case 0:bit_string = "0"; break;
    case 1:bit_string = "1"; break;
    }
    total_bit_string += bit_string;
    if (bit_quotient == 0) { bit = false; }
}
while (hex)
{
    hex_quotient = hex_decimal / 16;
    hex_remainder = hex_decimal % 16;
    hex_decimal = hex_quotient;
    hexassign();//assigning a hex value
    total_hex_string += hex_assign;
    if (hex_quotient == 0) { hex = false; }
}
system("cls");//clearing screen
load();//calling loading effect
cout << endl;//blank line
system("color 06");
cout << " Binary value ===========> ";
system("color");
for (f = 1; f <= total_bit_string.length(); f++)//printing in backwards order
{
    cout << total_bit_string(total_bit_string.length() - f);
}
cout << endl;//blank line
system("color 06");
cout << " Hexadecimal value ======> ";
system("color");
for (q = 1; q <= total_hex_string.length(); q++)//printing in backwards order
{
    cout << total_hex_string(total_hex_string.length() - q);
}
cout << endl;//blank line
}//dec
int main()
{
char user_choice;//identifier for user choice
char run_choice;//identifier for run choice
bool run = true;//validator for running the program
while (run)//will run as long as <run> is true
{
    cout << endl;//blank line
    system("color 09");
    cout << " Do you want to input (B)inary, (H)exadecimal, or (D)ecimal value? ";
    system("color");
    user_choice = toupper(_getwche());//user input
    cout << endl;//blank line
    cout << endl;//blank line
    while (user_choice != 'B' && user_choice != 'H' && user_choice != 'D')//checking illegal emtry
    {
        system("color 04");
        cout << " Wrong input...enter again: ";
        system("color");
        user_choice = toupper(_getwche());//user input
        cout << endl;//blank line
    }
    system("cls");
    cout << endl;//blank line
    if (user_choice == 'B') { bit(); }//if user chose binary
    else if (user_choice == 'H') { hex(); }//if user chose hexadecimal
    else if (user_choice == 'D') { dec(); }//if user chose decimal
    cout << endl;//blank line
    system("pause");
    system("cls");//clearing screen
    cout << endl;//blank line
    system("color 09");
    cout << " Do you want to calculate any more numbers?(Y/N): ";
    run_choice = toupper(_getwche());//user input
    cout << endl;//blank line
    cout << endl;//blank line
    while (run_choice != 'Y' && run_choice != 'N')
    {
        system("color 04");
        cout << " Wrong input...enter again: ";
        run_choice = toupper(_getwche());//user input
        cout << endl;//blank line
    }
    if (run_choice == 'Y') { run = true; system("cls"); }
    else if (run_choice == 'N') { run = false; }
}
system("color 07");//colour reset
system("cls");//clearing screen
return 0;
}//end