Changing Linux system files by malware from another OS. Is it possible?

Is it possible to infect important Linux system files with a malware from another operating system? For example, you are using Windows, you have a disk with the Debian operating system connected. You “caught” (on Windows) a malware that aims to modify Linux system files. Will the Linux kernel notice the change in these files? Does it perform some sort of “integrity check” on system files? Or is it better to unmount the drive with Linux when using Windows or another “risky” OS?