linux – What protects hardware from erroneous software breaking it?

Trying to understand what components protect hardware from erroneous software breaking it. As it is being reported in the media, a new MMO has been breaking some expensive graphics cards. I understood it to be that hardware is abstracted such that software shouldn’t be able to fry your gpu/cpu etc.

What type of safeguards on in place via the hardware/kernel/etc that help ensure badly written software cant brick hardware unintentionally?