penetration test – What are some of the latest security vulnerabilities?

I am a student and I need to write a test for my InfoSec course. The test consists of describing a security vulnerability. How is that possible, why could it be dangerous, how could it be exploited, and so on?

I could search for myself on the internet, but I decided to ask here for people who work daily in this area. refer me to a vulnerability that they find fascinating or important or dangerous and that would not be too difficult to under.

In a word: What security vulnerabilities (newer or older) can I write about?

If you could also include the CVE number, it would be great 🙂

Looking forward to hearing your opinions,

Best regards