seo – How to change the structure of my URLs with the sitemap for an active website?

I change the URL of my website to improve SEO. The current sitemap contains the following URLs:

mysite/browse/1    /* 1 is the ID for fashion */
mysite/browse/2    /* 2 is the ID for real estate */

Now I have changed the URLs to the following format:

mysite/browse/fashion
mysite/browse/real-estate

The code is ready to be published with the new site map. If I publish the new code, the old URLs would no longer be valid, namely: mysite/browse/2 would return "404 – page not found".

I think I need to release the code and send the new site map to Google Search Console. But I think it would take some time for Google to analyze the new sitemap. Therefore, during this time, all my old URLs that appear in the search result would return the error "404 – page not found".

How can I mitigate this situation?