How do you set a volume or have the user adjust the volume so that the volume is intensity the soundscape in a simulation corresponds as closely as possible to reality?
Imagine: in a simulated AR or VR landscape, there is an object of interest in the distance that emits noise, for example. a wind turbine. The task of the user is to affirm the nuisance that this causes. If the volume is reduced to eleven, it will probably be louder than in nature, but if the speakers or headphones are almost in mute mode, the results will also serve no purpose.
The best thing to do is to add several objects to the scene that produce sounds whose noise level at the observed distance is well known. I do not know how many of these reference points it would take, nor which ones (eg flies and birds) to use.