SQL Server – Tempdb grows limitless and stays stuck

I have a problem on a production server, this problem started a few days ago: the tempdb database grows out of proportion, until the disk is full. The server started having this problem suddenly.

Another symptom is this: from the management studio, if I try to access tables or properties of tempdb, wait time errors occur. He seems to be always "locked".

I've followed this article https://www.mssqltips.com/sqlservertip/3276/sql-server-alert-for-tempdb-growing-out-control/, but the only query detected is a backup request ( on another database). ).

I do not understand what the problem could be, also because it seems to only occur on this server.