## dnd 5e – Why do Warlocks only have spells up to 5th level? What’s the correct progression for their slots?

The book is correct. For the reason why level 6-9 spells exist for the warlock when their Pact Magic slots cap at 5, check the Mystic Arcanum class feature on PHB p.108.

## Mystic Arcanum

At 11th level, your patron bestows upon you a magical secret called an arcanum. Choose one 6th level spell from the warlock spell list as this arcanum.

You can cast your arcanum spell once without expending a spell slot. You must finish a long rest before you can do so again.

At higher levels, you gain more warlock spells of your choice that can be cast in this way: one 7th-level spell at 13th level, one 8th-level spell at 15th level, and one 9th-level spell at 17th level. You regain all uses of your Mystic Arcanum when you finish a long rest.

It’s simulating the once-a-day spell slots that other casters get (presumably, they didn’t want you recasting a 9th level spell every time you rested throughout the day), but there are a few minor differences.

1. It’s not technically a spell slot for anything that cares specifically about spell slots (such as the feature below that in the PHB, Eldritch Master), as mentioned.
2. Unlike most spellcasters, you only ever “know” (as an arcanum) one spell each of 6th-9th level.
3. You cannot ‘upcast’ spells to those 6th-9th level ‘slots’, as they aren’t really slots. As an example, if you knew shatter as one of your usual Pact Magic spells, you could only cast it with one of your standard spell slots (likely a 5th level slot by the time you have Mystic Arcanum, barring other spell slot levels being available due to multiclassing or the like); you could not expend a use of Mystic Arcanum instead to cast shatter at spell level 6+.
4. Similarly to point 3, you always cast the 6th level arcanum at 6th level, the 7th level arcanum as 7th level, etc. You could not, for example, upcast a circle of death chosen as your 6th level arcanum to your 8th level arcanum ‘slot’; that 8th level arcanum can only be used on whatever spell you chose for that level, such as glibness.

## dnd 5e – Do paper books exist in the 5th ed. of D&D?

Yes, there are books within the PHB, listed within the table and described on the next page. Since you asked why spellbooks are made out of vellum, it’s important to know what it was and how it’s used.

As the link describes, vellum is paper made from cow skin. Since it’s made from a form of leather, it shares special properties that paper does not, such as increased durability in harsher conditions, fewer chances of bleeding, and a longer lifespan overall. More directly speaking, important documents and artworks that had to travel long distances utilized vellum to assure that the quality would last.

As a wizard relies on having a trustworthy spellbook with him during his travels, it would be wise for them to find the best option available. If they were to choose paper instead, the harsh conditions they are met with could ruin the book:

• Being submerged will definitely make the ink run, ruining their spells at the least. At most, it will disintegrate.
• Being engulfed in flames will dry out the paper and make them brittle, and easy to shatter.
• The more the book is used, the more likely you’ll end up severing the
bonds that the page has to the binding, while vellum is less likely
to tear.

These are all advantages vellum has over paper. It has more of an ability to adapt without compromising its endurance or quality. The ink ends up tattooing the vellum more than riding it, and while the moisture might inflate the pages, they will regain the durability of leather, and dry out just as easily. (The same as rawhide can be moistened and dried multiple times without wearing out it’s quality).

To address how you should describe the tomes in a library, that would all depend on what kind of tomes you’re talking about. History shows us that important documents, such as religious records, were recorded on vellum, while less important documents were written on paper. The Library of Alexandria had mostly paper scrolls piled in cubicles, so adding everything together, though the majority of the books will be written on paper, you might find some vellum books and scrolls tucked away in sparse corners as well.

## dnd 5e – Experimenting with advantage die from D&D 5th Ed. Need help with probabilities with anydice

I’m making my own system where I would generalize the advantage / disadvantage rule where you would always roll advantage when having a higher modifier than opponent and vice versa. If you have lower modifier than opponent, you always roll with disadvantage.

How would you compute in Anydice:

• Roll Xd20 take highest. Add modifier.

• When scoring a critical sum up 1 extra d20.

• When scoring multiple criticals sum up as much extra d20s.

Examples :

1. You roll 3d20 and score no critials.

2. You roll 3d20 and score 1 critical.
Keep one d20 and add another one more d20 from the same roll to the result.

3. You roll 3d20 and score 2 criticals.
Keep one d20 and add another two more d20 from the same roll to the result.

I want to calculate the distribution to see what would be the weight of such changes compared to a simple roll 2d20 keep highest.

That’s where I have gotten so far with the anydice program:

https://anydice.com/program/2122a

## dnd 5e – Stabilizing Characters in DnD 5th Ed

The default rule with ability checks is that you can roll to attempt any task, even if you are not proficient in the specific skill being called for; you just don’t get a proficiency bonus on the roll. Medicine is no different. In the absence of a specific rule that says a particular task requires proficiency to even attempt, there is no such requirement.

The best way to save a creature with 0 hit points is to heal it. If healing is unavailable, the creature can at least be stabilized so that it isn’t killed by a failed death saving throw.

You can use your action to administer first aid to an unconscious creature and attempt to stabilize it, which requires a successful DC 10 Wisdom (Medicine) check.

Since the rules on “Stabilizing a Creature” don’t say you need to know medicine to try it, you don’t.

Whether you can do a task without proper tools is less clear and more in the DM’s purview — it would be difficult to argue that you can attempt to write a persuasive letter without paper and something to write with. However, there seems to be no good reason to require specific gear to attempt to stop somebody from bleeding out when the specific rule about how to do such a thing makes no mention of needing any gear, and putting limitations on stabilization checks that make them unusual to even attempt would seem to be against the intent of the very first line of that description. Why make it sound like stabilization checks are the obvious second choice if there were a bunch of additional requirements to even try it?

## Yes, but it’s not a big deal

There are only two spells that are above 5th level and have the `ritual` tag; Forbiddance and Drawmij’s Instant Summons

Let’s look at the wording of the Invocation:

You can now inscribe magical rituals in your Book of Shadows. Choose two 1st-level spells that have the ritual tag from any class’s spell list (the two needn’t be from the same list). The spells appear in the book and don’t count against the number of spells you know. With your Book of Shadows in hand, you can cast the chosen spells as rituals. You can’t cast the spells except as rituals, unless you’ve learned them by some other means. You can also cast a warlock spell you know as a ritual if it has the ritual tag.

On your adventures, you can add other ritual spells to your Book of Shadows. When you find such a spell, you can add it to the book if the spell’s level is equal to or less than half your warlock level (rounded up) and if you can spare the time to transcribe the spell. For each level of the spell, the transcription process takes 2 hours and costs 50 gp for the rare inks needed to inscribe it.

So you start with two spells from any class list, so long as they are rituals. As you adventure, you can also transcribe other ritual spells, so long as their level is half of your warlock level, rounded down. Not the level of spell you can cast. So at 12th level, you can cast 6th level ritual spells, so long as you have acquired and transcribed them into your Book of Shadows.

Additional, you can “cast a warlock spell you know as a ritual if it has the ritual tag.” But once again, this list is very limited; seven total if we include all Warlock sub-classes:

• Comprehend Languages
• Illusory Script
• Unseen Servant
• Silence
• Feign Death
• Meld into Stone
• Contact other Plane

## And it works for Arcanum, too

If some future rule change adds either Forbiddance or Instant Summons as an Arcanum, or they make a new sub-class with a new 6th-level ritual spell, those work too.

The wording of Arcanum states:

At 11th level, your patron bestows upon you a magical secret called an arcanum. Choose one 6th-level spell from the warlock spell list as this arcanum.

You can cast your arcanum spell once without expending a spell slot. You must finish a long rest before you can do so again.

At higher levels, you gain more warlock spells of your choice that can be cast in this way.

So Arcanum are warlock spells, and the Invocation states that the character can cast ritual warlock spells as rituals.

## dnd 5e – How do I recalibrate this encounter from Red Hand of Doom for 5th Edition D&D?

I’m running D&D3.5e’s Red Hand of Doom updated for 5e. So far it has been effortlessly straightforward. I’ve been keeping the basic combat encounter structures and simply swapping out 3.5e monsters for similarly-named 5e monsters (3.5e hobgoblins for 5e hobgoblins, 3.5e manticores for 5e manticores, etc.). Likewise, I’ve been winging skill checks and other non-combat challenges just by eyeballing how hard the stated 3.5e DCs likely would’ve been and using my best judgment to apply 5e DCs of roughly similar probability given bounded accuracy.

However, the PCs are coming up on a critical encounter with a major non-combat objective that presents special conversion problems. The encounter in question, arising near the end of Part I, is

Skull Gorge Bridge, where the PCs are tasked with destroying the eponymous bridge while facing heavy resistance.

Because this objective isn’t a monster, I can’t simply turn to stock 5e monsters and assume all the calibration will have been done for me. At the same time, it’s not as simple as a skill check that I can just eyeball. RHoD provides 3.5e combat statistics for the objective (see p. 34-35), but I’m not sure how those statistics translate to 5e. As written, the objective has what I perceive to be an outsize pile of HP, plus additional defensive features (taking reduced damage from certain sources, etc.) arising from how 3.5e treated entities in the nature of this objective. It’s not clear whether, or how, 5e might expect me to recalibrate those statistics and features.

That is problem enough, but RHoD also goes out of its way to enumerate 3.5e spells that can interact effectively with the objective — most of which are either unavailable or fundamentally changed in 5e. To wit:

• Soften earth and stone does not exist in 5e.
• 5e’s version of stone shape restricts the effected area to “no more than 5 feet in any direction,” which was not a limitation of the 3.5e version.
• Stone to flesh does not exist in 5e.
• Transmute rock does exist in 5e and is substantially more useful in that it applies to any nonmagical rock, rather than only natural, unworked rock as did the 3.5e version. The 5e version could probably deal with the objective in a single turn, whereas RHoD says the 3.5e version just dealt some modest damage if used in a particular way.

Given the different combat mechanics and spell functions between 3.5e and 5e, how do I convert this encounter so it remains an appropriate challenge?

(In case context is helpful, the party is level 5 and comprises a Light cleric, a Hunter ranger, a melee-heavy Battlemaster fighter, and an Abjuration wizard. Despite RHoD being written for 3.5e parties starting at level 6, up to this point these 5th-level PCs have been able to handle the encounters in Part I of the adventure.)

## dnd 5e – A new ki idea for increasing monk damage 5th edition

Is this idea for a Ki option for a monk starting at 2nd level balanced? Based on playing experience, are there any foreseeable problems with it?

Iron Palm

Immediately before you take the attack action on your turn, you can spend 1 ki point to increase your unarmed strike damage dice to the next rank. This lasts until the end of your turn, and does not effect hand held weapons or other monk weapons only the unarmed strikes.

## Theorem 3.2.14 (Probability: Theory and Examples, Durrett, 5th ed.)

The proof of the theorem is a single line and thus seemingly straightforward, yet I cannot see how to justify it. I tried to rearrange some of the pieces, but that approach failed to improve my understanding. Any help in justifying the statement would be greatly appreciated.

$$textbf{Theorem 3.2.14.}$$
If there is a $$varphige0$$ so that $$varphi(x)tointfy$$ as $$|x|toinfty$$ and
$$C=sup_nintvarphi(x)dF_n(x)
then $$F_n$$ is tight.

$$textbf{Proof.}$$
$$1-F_n(M)+F_n(-M)lefrac{C}{inf_{|x|ge M}varphi(x)}.$$

## dnd 5e – D&D 5th Edition: Truesight and Darkvision, Why Does A Monster Have Both?

While creating a homebrew monster based around eyes and vision, I looked up monsters that had both darkvison and truesight, surprisingly only two have both, the Avatar of Death and Canoloth, I’ll use the Canoloth as the example here.

When reading the descriptions of both vision types, darkvision allows a creature to see in dim light as if it were bright light and darkness as if it were dim light but it can’t discern color and only sees shades of grey, with truesight not only can you see in normal darkness but also magical darkness, as well as many other benefits, so what confuses me is why any creature would have both forms of vision (especially when it only has darkvision out to 60 feet but truesight out to 120 feet) when truesight already has the only benefit of darkvision along with all its other benefits?

Have I misinterpreted the mechanics of these different sight types, is their a hidden reason behind having both? Or is it just a slipup of the designers to give a creature like the Canoloth both forms of vision?

## wifi – 5th Gen Airport Extreme Randomly drops connection – but only on some devices

Here’s the situation: I am using a brand new MacBook Pro, and thus far all seems well.

I have a 5th Gen Airport Extreme that has worked well for nearly a decade. (I hadn’t realized it was so long, but there you are).

So lately what’s been happening is my wife’s devices seem to randomly lose connections. She has to have our internet connection function, so clearly this is a REAL problem. She is using a ThinkPad / Windows machine and connecting to a work VPN.

The other device she has is a late model iPad mini, which recently lost a zoom meeting.

I have had no problems with the Internet but she seems to run into a problem about once a month, where she gets randomly kicked off the network and it takes a minute for everything to find it again.
Anyhow, I had a few ideas as to what is wrong, but I need some help even figuring out how to diagnose this. Our ISP is Spectrum, and they said all is well with the modem (an Arris DG167OA I think, that is directly connected to the Airport Extreme)

My ideas:

1. Distance. The problem is just that she is in the kitchen about 20 feet from the router, through a couple of walls. The thing is, I have worked out there too (on the terrace) and never had a problem yet.

2. Some weird compatibility issue since the problems seem to come up most often with the Windows machine and recently I was able to get her on the Internet using a local hotspot from my phone (which was set to Wifi)

3. Something I haven’t thought of, related to the age of the router.

What I have done: firmware is version 7.8.1, and I am not getting the “update” notice.
Haven’t tried hard reset yet, since we need Internet to work (so I likely need to do it at night or something)

I have an airport express I bought also some years ago (it was originally hooked up to the stereo to play music) and maybe that could help extend the network if that’s the problem, but do let me know.
Any ideas welcome . Thanks!

Also: if anyone has suggestions for an Apple Router to buy please tell me; the only ones I saw were \$500 and that seems crazy compared to what I spent years back. I need a solution that “just works” — I am not interested in playing Tech Support Guy as I have a job too, you know?