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PostgreSQL database with 9000 tables continuously grow in memory usage

I have a PostgreSQL database that I use to store time-series (finance) data. each table contains the same table schema but has a different name based on the market pair and timeframe.

Ex. I have tables called candles_btc_usdt_one_minute, candles_eth_usdt_one_hour, candles_eth_usdt_one_week, etc.

These tables sum up to around 9000 tables in total.

Note that I know about TimescaleDB and InfluxDB, I already tested both and will post a reason I’m not using them at the end of this post.

So, since this is time-series data, it means that I’m only doing INSERT write operations and very rarely some SELECT to retrieve some data.

My issue is that the database memory usage seems to grow infinitely until I get an OOM crash. I configured my postgresql.conf using solutions as PGTune to a system with 1GB of RAM, 6 cores, and 120 connections and I limited my docker container to 4GB and still got an OOM after around one day with the system on.

I also tried other configs as 4GB of ram and 8GB in the container but PostgreSQL never respects the limit stipulated by the config and keeps using more and more RAM.

Is this the expected behavior? Maybe PostgreSQL has some other obscure config I can use to limit the memory usage in cases where there is a huge number of tables.. I’m not sure..

The reason I’m guessing this issue has something to do with my high number of tables is because the opened connections from my connection pool keep growing in memory usage faster at the start of my system (the first hours) and then the growth gets slower (but never stops).

That behavior reflects my INSERT intervals when hitting the tables.

For example, a table with a timeframe five_minutes means that every five minutes I will insert a new row to it, which means that I’m accessing these tables for the first time faster when the system starts than tables with higher timeframes as one_hour, etc.

And monitoring the memory growth, it seems that the connection process grows a little bit when it accesses a new table for the first time.

So, assuming this is right, it would mean that after some months, all the connections would have accessed all the tables at least one time and memory growth would stop. The problem with that is that I don’t know how much memory this would use at the end and it’s not ideal since trying to limit the memory via postgresql.conf becomes meaningless.

Here is the schema for one of the tables (as I said before, all tables has the same columns, index, etc):

data_db_prod=# d+ candles_one_minute_btc_usdt
                                   Table "public.candles_one_minute_btc_usdt"
  Column   |            Type             | Collation | Nullable | Default | Storage | Stats target | Description 
 timestamp | timestamp without time zone |           | not null |         | plain   |              | 
 open      | numeric                     |           | not null |         | main    |              | 
 close     | numeric                     |           | not null |         | main    |              | 
 high      | numeric                     |           | not null |         | main    |              | 
 low       | numeric                     |           | not null |         | main    |              | 
 volume    | numeric                     |           | not null |         | main    |              | 
    "candles_one_minute_btc_usdt_timestamp_desc_index" btree ("timestamp" DESC)
    "candles_one_minute_btc_usdt_timestamp_index" btree ("timestamp")
Access method: heap

About other solutions

As I said before, I already tried TimescaleDB and InfluxDB.

For TimescaleDB I would be able to use a single candles table and create 2 partitions to store the market pair and the timeframe, fixing the high number of tables and probably the RAM issue I’m having, but I cannot use this because TimescaleDB uses too much storage, so I would need to use their compression feature, but a compressed hypertable doesn’t allow write operations, meaning that to be able to do a backfill (which I do often) I would need to basically decompress the whole database each time.

For InfluxDB the issue is simply because they don’t support any numeric/decimal type, and I cannot lose precision using double.

Feel free to suggest some other alternative I’m not aware of that would fit nicely into my use case if there is one.

nginx – Setup SSL on Public URL and Admin Dashboard of an app running on port 9000

I seem to have a problem configuring SSL on an app on a subdomain, only that I don’t know how to fix them:

  1. I have a web app running on http://mysub.domain.com:9000
  2. This url is the admin dashboard of the app
  3. This app shoots email with public facing URLs like http://mysub.domain.com:9000/xxx/xxx/xxx (which lead to an action within my app)
  4. The mysub.domain.com is SSL enabled and loads with SSL but the moment the port (9000) is added it returns error page and I only have access to it via http
  5. The problem : 1 – port is visible to public and 2 – the URL shows insecure (when clicked by users it opens with port)
  6. The solution required : 1 – port to be removed without the action of the URL to be impacted and the same URL needs to be served on SSL

I have linux 18/postgres 12 and apache (webserver) + nginx (reverse proxy) running on my server.

Any help is appreciated. Pls also help with the name of the file to be edited.

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email – Importing 9000 eml files to Thunderbird .78

Folder containing 9069 .eml files sent by Windows Live Mail.

I need to add them to Thunderbird. I created sub-folder in Thunderbird Archieved items, selected all files in Windows Explorer and dragged files them to this folder into this folder.

Thunderbird shows icon with number of files and freezes about 30 seconds.
After that nothing happes.
I tried several times from and to different folders but problem presists.
Importing small number of .emf files works.

How to import 9000 eml files to Thunderbird ?

Using 32 bit Thunderbird 78.1.0 in 64-bit latest Windows 10

ImportExportTools plugin has notice that it works only with Thunderbird 14.0 – 60.

I asked it also in Thunderrbird support at https://support.mozilla.org/en-US/questions/1298295
but havent got answer.

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Is it possible to sync up LMKs in two Thales PayShield 9000 instances>

Basically, when we execute a generate key command such as A0 then we receive a key-under-lmk for future use. What if we have multiple HSMs in a high availability configuration? How would we make sure that all keys-under-LMK mean the same thing to all HSM instances?

The documentation I have doesn’t cover this and I didn’t find anything online about that particular model.

What type of server should HAproxy obtain for approximately 9,000 online users at the same time?


I would like to have your recommendations on the specifications of a HAproxy server that I would like to put online for about 9000 users at the same time …

I prefer to have a dedicated server …

I would also like your opinion on how to develop a MariaDB database around 80 GB with 80% of reads and 20% of writes …

Should I use Maxscale or Proxysql? Keep all servers synchronized at the same time or keep one server for writes and the rest for reads? How to scale the records also?

I find the sharding a bit complex for now …

Thank you

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Cisco PFR ASR 1000 9000

Need recommendations on router model and IOS version for ASR 1000 and 9000 supporting PFRs
I know how wonderful Noction is and know Expereo, formerly Border 6, but their current price does not suit me.

for calculating memory for the BGP, Gtt, Ntt, Cogent, Hurricane routing table
need at least 6 10G sfp + and a couple of 1G sfp
would rather prefer a not so old version 2015+

My budget is limited in the sense that I would need 2 units to have a spare reserve.
also open to running 2 peripheral routers with pfr if, for example, the memory on one is not sufficient on the model, but that the model is good.

Thank you in advance.