screen reader – Accessibility when embedding PDF in Word document

I'm in the process of creating a Word document at the moment, and there are a number of existing documents that should be included as appendices. Some of them are Word documents, others in PDF format. The most consistent approach I have found is to convert the Word documents from the appendix to PDF, then convert all PDFs to images and insert them as images. in the main Word document.

I guess this makes all appendages completely inaccessible to people who cannot see. Is there a better solution or better practice for embedding PDFs in a Word document so that they can be read by screen readers?

Accessibility to onomatopoeias – Exchange of user experience stacks

Use standard HTML elements to provide appropriate signage for screen readers.

In your case, you can try to use and Keywords.

These elements represent the abbreviations and definitions of the web page. If you use possibly unknown terms, using these elements gives screen readers the best possible chance to help the user.

Also, be careful when using them in conjunction with each other to achieve the desired result.

Do disabled buttons always have to conform to contrast for accessibility?

Very related to this question: Disabled accessible state, but it is about how to style disabled buttons to make them compatible with accessibility, but my question is slightly different.

Is this really an accessibility requirement for disabled features to conform to contrast?

You don't hide functionality from visually impaired people by making it gray on gray because the functionality is not available to everyone, so they don't lack functionality because of it. Yes, it's always best to have everything in contrast, but that might not be relevant here.

The situation is this: we have to disable the functionality of our web application when the system is undergoing scheduled maintenance. Therefore, we do not want remove the buttons because we want the user to know that the functionality is only temporarily unavailable. Additional messages are provided on the page stating that certain features are not available.

We designed a standard inactive status button (dark gray text on a light gray button background), but came back to us with the fear that it would not be DDA compliant. However, I do not agree with this concern for the reasons I set out above. Am I mistaken, or is it OK to have gray on gray buttons for such situations?

Note: I am not looking for alternative solutions (leave that to the related questions), my question is specifically whether or not this is an accessibility problem.

Are there accessibility guidelines or good practice standards?

WCAG2.0 is the currently generally accepted accessibility standard. Section 508 compliance checklists also exist ( but may be out of date: the original 508 guidelines are relatively vague and have been written before eg. screen readers can interpret javascript and are therefore more restrictive than necessary.

You misinterpreted the level assessments in WCAG: they are not "priorities", they are different levels of compliance. Most organizations aim for at least level A compliance; few go as far as AAA level compliance because, as you point out, this level of accessibility is difficult to achieve. In reality:

"It is not recommended that AAA level compliance be required as a general policy for entire sites as it is not possible to meet all of the AAA level success criteria for certain content.") Http:// conformance.html

To consider your product as accessible, it must meet level A it should meet the AA level, and may meet the AAA level.

You can also check out the VPAT template at, which is essentially a self-assessment checklist from "Does this product respond to WCAG?" in standardized form.

(I come back late to modify this answer to echo an important point raised in other answers: the checklist is just the first step; it's important to test the design for accessibility and to make sure it is really usable by everyone. It is entirely possible to build a product that technically meets all guidelines, but which is still unnecessarily difficult or boring to use.)

accessibility – How long should automatic doors delay closing?

I guess @Mervin Johnsingh has already answered it with the facts and figures.

I just wanted to highlight my experience and my thoughts on automatic (sliding) doors.

If there is an automatic sliding door, we expect it to open at a safe distance without decreasing the walking speed (with doubts at hand mind whether it will open or not)

Likewise, when you enter the door, it must close when the person has crossed a mark or a certain distance. Instead of time, I think it should be a function of distance.

X is the safety distance

As indicated above, at X distance remaining from the door, it must open and wait until the person has traveled the same distance from the other side of the door before closing.

For example, if the remaining distance is Y and the door is still closed, you begin to doubt it will work and raise doubts.

My opinion, it should depend on the distance between people and the door.

screen reader – How to test accessibility technologies in a website

You already have VoiceOver, so you just need to learn the commands.

At first, a "standard" screen reader is NVDA, which is free. Now, I have never used it on a Linux distribution but I hope this guide makes sense for you and will allow you to run it (as it is based on Windows).

NVDA works at the computer level, so it works with all browsers (although it works best with FireFox).

Same strategy with VoiceOver but it works better with Safari.

Finally, they are JAWs, but it is expensive at first and is comparable to NVDA.

Here are the commands for NVDA

Here are the commands of VoiceOver for Mac

Here are the controls for an iOS touch screen device

Then, once you have the credentials, just search on Google to “ start with a screen reader & # 39; & # 39; and you will find many videos.

Learn the commands then put a piece of paper on the screen / turn off the screen and try to navigate to a website. When you get lost, remove the paper and figure out where you are.

When starting (NVDA), use the number 1-6 to cycle through the header levels, as this is the "noob" way to understand layouts, then go to page regions .

Request for reference of educational material in source format, for accessibility for the blind


I am a blind undergraduate math student. I use screen reader software, which uses text-to-speech to read aloud the contents of the screen, to read and write math.

Due to the limitations of presentation formats such as PDF and MathJax, screen readers cannot properly handle most of the mathematical content they contain.

This means that for the most part, I can only correctly access mathematical documents in their source format, like LaTeX; this considerably limits the resources available to students.
Fortunately, there are some excellent online math resources that include content sources, like Wikipedia and NLab, but sometimes they are not enough on their own to learn a subject well.

Sometimes I have had the chance to reach out to kind teachers and publishers about particular textbooks, which they have been able to provide in source format;
but in general it is very difficult to find other good learning resources available as a source.

Another good resource is Arxiv, which often allows you to download the source of an article, but it is very difficult to browse mountains of articles specifically for educational resources.


What would be really nice is a complete list by subject of the educational resources in mathematics that people have made available online as a source;
and that is what I would like this question to become.

So: if you have (or know) course notes, textbooks or similar, which are available online in source form, via Arxiv, or elsewhere, post it as an answer, and I will keep the question updated with a categorized list.
(Note: no special processing is required to make the LaTeX screen reader user-friendly.)

Thank you in advance for making life easier for blind students in math.

P.S. I hope this is a suitable place to do this post; sorry in advance if this is not the case.

Is there an accessibility guideline for the contrast of a button color between a normal state and a steady state?

There is no rule for determining the amount of color change for a hovered State.

However, it should always have a minimum contrast ratio of 4.5: 1 for small texts and 3: 1 for large texts. The button must also maintain a minimum contrast ratio of 3: 1 with its surroundings.

That being said, there are some good practices to follow: –

  1. Make sure to position the cursor on cursor: pointer if it is not already done, it is obvious that the element is clickable.
  2. A great way to make sure it is obvious that the item is in its hover state is to push the button slightly (add 1px to the padding for example). As long as the button does not "jump" in hover, this subtle difference really helps.
  3. A quick way to get a decent color change is to add or subtract "2" from a hexadecimal value (for example: #31a4eb bECOMES #53c6fd, notice how "e" became "f" rather than wrapping yourself.). This is a quick way to add a decent contrast change (assuming sufficient contrast is always maintained for text, etc., that's why you add or subtract 2 in depending on your current color)

For reference, there is some advice on 1.4.11 Non-textual contrast which is not entirely clear but indicates that a control must have a contrast ratio of 3: 1 even when hovered over.

This success criterion does not require that color changes
differentiate the states of an individual component respond to 3: 1
contrast ratio when they do not appear side by side. For
for example, there is no new requirement that the links visited contrast
with the default color, or that the mouseover indicators contrast with
the default state. However, the component should not lose contrast with
adjacent colors and non-textual indicators such as the
check box or an arrow indicating that a menu is selected or open
must have sufficient contrast with the adjacent colors.

accessibility – How the dark theme could affect people with color blindness, could you share your thoughts on this

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