interface – Why does the space bar do page down in browsers

I don’t have any evidence that this is the reason the spacebar is used for page down, but back in the day when IBM was setting PC design standards (that still heavily influence the design today), the original IBM AT 84-key keyboard from 1981 (IIRC) did not have page up/down or dedicated arrow keys (they shared the number pad):

enter image description here

The standard 101-key keyboard didn’t come on the scene until 3-ish years later. There were competitors to IBM too, and strange alternatives all over the place, e.g. the MIT Space Cadet, which has no page up/down, and has the hand symbols that vaguely resemble arrows:

enter image description here

From the link above re: the hand keys (emphasis mine):

Thumbs- up, down, left, and right keys. It was never quite clear
whether these were for answering yes/no questions or for navigation.
In the groups that used this keyboard, there was a cultural aversion
to arrow keys.
To be honest, I’m not sure why any more.

The rapid development of new (and sometimes competing) technologies and interfaces at the time probably led to years of page up/down and arrows being an unreliable / inconsistent source of interaction (and standardization was not as wide-spread at the time), but one key all these keyboards had in common was the spacebar; it has always been around and unchanged.

Also, the mouse didn’t really fall into general consumer use until around the same time as the 101-key keyboard; with the first Mac’s in 1984, and it raised a lot of eyebrows. It was a while before the mouse was as much of a staple as it is today (and even today a mouse is still a bit of an option; you are far more likely to find a computer with no mouse than with no keyboard).

I imagine that this combined with the usage points jgthms brings up in his answer are the reasons that programs like more (mentioned in Celada’s answer) and others used the spacebar so heavily — more, for example, was written in 1978, well before any truly meaningful standardization of extra keyboard keys. Over time, it probably just stuck.

Allowing 3rd-party cookies in major 2020 browsers

I’m trying to get 3rd party cookies to work on major mid-year 2020 browsers (1). It’s as simple as pointing an iframe to an external URL to make a cookied request and probably get the response thereafter (and the external site explicitly allows this).

Is there a solution to this problem? For example, some other header/s which the external site would set other than multiple combinations of Allow-Access- headers which simply doesn’t work?

(1): including Chrome incognito and iPhone safari.

chrome – Do browsers create caches of local HTML assets, such as SVGs or scripts?

This question was asked over 7 years ago, but there wasn’t a definitive answer.

In the following example, does the browser know not to create a cache for these local assets?

<!doctype html>
<img src="image.png">
<script src="myscripts.js"></script>

Does the browser (Chrome in this case) create a copy in the cache on load? I’ve looked at the network log which suggests to my inexperienced eyes that it doesn’t attempt to pull from any caches, and just re-requests every time. However, I’d be very surprised if the browser caches nothing about a local HTML file.

privacy – How does Facebook know I am the same person/computer trying to make separate accounts using different browsers?

It appears Facebook doesn’t approve of my pages (or some other reason), and has deactivated my primary account. The message is “doesn’t follow our community standards” (it’s worth noting that another user posted a reply to one of my comments that I should engaged in a graphic perverted act with my son, and yet for some reason Facebook moderators have found that “it doesn’t go against community standards”). Now, we could go back and forth all day about that point, but it isn’t my question, I only provide the back story for some context.

What I am trying to achieve:

  • Create an entirely new and different user account.

What I have tried:

  1. CHROME: Logging out, trying to create a new account using a new email. Produces the same message, and it doesn’t work.
  2. CHROME: Deleting everything, every cookie, history, and cached content. Create new user with a different email. Same problem, my account has been deactivated (see screenshot)
  3. Installed OPERA, started from scratch. New username, new email. I switch wi-fi from my phone tether to my house wi-fi. Now I have a completely brand new browser, with a completely different IP. I create a brand new user, new name, birthday, email, password. Whamo! – same message. Definitely not cached. They are tracking me in some way other than a browser cookie.

Browser cookies only work within the same browser. But I started from scratch using a newly installed different browser (Opera), connected to a completely different network, and used completely different credentials. They still have identified me. How?

Your account has been disabled

sharepoint online – All my browsers (Chrome, IE, Edge, Opera and Firefox) download a Office-files instead of open it

First of all I apologize for my bad English.

If a user opens for example an xlsx file he downloads it. From now on it is no longer connected to the uploaded xlsx file and changes will not saved. That’s exactly not what I want my browsers to do. The file should be opened on the client with Excel and still connected to the file which was uploaded on the server. I’ve tested it with all my installed browsers: IE, Edge, Chrome, Firefox and Opera and it’s every time the same problem.

I’ve done some research and didn’t find any solution which works for me. The OpenInClient feature is activated. Many thanks for your help.

curl and wget fail to verify wildcard Let’s Encrypt certificate, but browsers work fine

We’ve obtained a wildcard certificate from Let’s Encrypt for and *, using certbot. This works fine on all browsers and with curl and wget when verifying, or The A records for those (sub)domains point to the same server, from which the certbot challenge was completed.

Later we’ve added a subdomain hosted on a different server, meet.. To use the same certificate on a different server, we copied the files making up the wildcard certificate from the original server to meet.. Both servers use NGINX. The problem is that wget and curl fail to fetch anything from, even though browsers don’t complain. wget fails even with --no-check-certificate.

$ $ wget -v --debug --no-check-certificate
Setting --check-certificate (checkcertificate) to 0
Setting --check-certificate (checkcertificate) to 0
DEBUG output created by Wget 1.20.3 on linux-gnu.

Reading HSTS entries from ~/.wget-hsts
URI encoding = ‘UTF-8’
Converted file name 'index.html' (UTF-8) -> 'index.html' (UTF-8)
--2020-06-26 21:39:15--
Resolving (
Caching =>
Connecting to (||:443... connected.
Created socket 3.
Releasing 0x000055ae59be63e0 (new refcount 1).
Initiating SSL handshake.
SSL handshake failed.
Closed fd 3
Unable to establish SSL connection.

$ curl
curl: (60) SSL certificate problem: unable to get local issuer certificate

What might be going on here?

browsers – Can we access chrome/browaser elements/objects using Javascript?

I am working on a chrome-extension using Js, I want to post image automatically at my wall without using mouse etc., .
I tried different method, I use to click photo upload button(which on top of the video upload button ) using Js
method there occurs an error File chooser dialog can only be show with user activation.
Another method I tried was by pasting the image link (image link from website) as you know when we paste image link in the wall status textarea of facebook even before clicking the submit button it loads the image on the bottom of the link instantly,
but as I am doing this automatically so when I use to paste the link using
textBox.value= ”
.When I do this without clicking mouse, this doesnt make our photo to be loaded before clicking the submit button. Even I tried to focus and click by using
textBox.focused = true;

Then I found something from the chrome, when I inspect page there in chrome some boxes open i.e., console, element, sources,Network, Performance etc., There I found that in Application there is a part called Frame > Top > Images , here in images part all images are stored. And I found the image of which’s URL I pasted in the textBox was also there.

So the Question is: Is there any way to directly access the photo which is there in Application > Frame > Top >Images in chrome? If so how and if not then How I can do that.
Can background.js access those parts of browser? I want to do this task without using facebook graph api. The thing I want my extension to do is it automatically Post Some text and images and post those to my wall and I don’t need to use mouse.

Note: Here textBox is the area where we use to post/write our status text.
Stackoverflow link:

xss – Why are browsers makeing PUT requests for static assets on my site?

Our site hosts static assets at /assets/…. In debugging a font-related issue, I looked through our logs for unusual activity. I found a bunch of requests like these

method path                         referer
PUT     /assets/js/40-8b8c.chunk.js
PUT     /assets/fonts/antique.woff2

The requests come from lots of different IP addresses all over the world. I don’t see any pattern in the User-Agents. The only HTTP methods are HEAD (odd, but fine), GET (expected), and PUT (very suspicious).

I haven’t been able to identify any code in our system that would cause a browser to make PUT requests to these paths.

I have no evidence that this activity is malicious. It could certainly be a broken browser plugin.

Has anyone seen this sort of behavior?

google analytics – Malicious bot – mulitple cities and browsers

I have a very small website, in a very competitive niche, that may receive a 100 hits a day, mostly for long tail keywords in blog posts. Yesterday and today I have been receiving dozens of hits per hour for the home page, where normally I might only have 2-3 hits per day for the home page.

The hits spend less than 15 seconds on the page, use different browsers, versions, resolutions and cities and are all direct (i.e., no referrals). There doesn’t seem to be any common denominator to be able to identify or possibly block these hits.

From what I can determine, there’s no real harm being done, unless it’s simply to make my home page have a high bounce rate and negatively impact SEO.

Should I be concerned about these hits impacting SEO or is this some kind of penetration testing?

Bootstrap Navbar behaving differently in different browsers

In my application bootstrap is not behaving as expected in chrome but showing proper display as expected in firefox. Please help me to fix this.

Link :


<!DOCTYPE html>

<html xmlns:th="">


<!-- Required meta tags -->
<meta charset="utf-8">
<meta name="viewport"
    content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1, shrink-to-fit=no">

<!-- Bootstrap CSS -->
<link rel="stylesheet"



    <nav class="navbar navbar-expand-lg navbar-light bg-light">
        <a class="navbar-brand" href="">Navbar</a>
        <button class="navbar-toggler" type="button" data-toggle="collapse"
            aria-controls="navbarTogglerDemo02" aria-expanded="false"
            aria-label="Toggle navigation">
            <span class="navbar-toggler-icon"></span>

        <div class="collapse navbar-collapse" id="navbarTogglerDemo02">
            <ul class="navbar-nav mr-auto mt-2 mt-lg-0">
                <li class="nav-item active"><a class="nav-link" href="">Home
                        <span class="sr-only">(current)</span>
                <li class="nav-item"><a class="nav-link" href="">Projects</a></li>
                <li class="nav-item"><a class="nav-link" href="">Employees</a></li>
            <form class="form-inline my-2 my-lg-0">
                <input class="form-control mr-sm-2" type="search"
                <button class="btn btn-outline-success my-2 my-sm-0" type="submit">Search</button>

        <h4 class='text-center'>Current Projects</h4>

                    <th>Project Name</th>
                    <th>Project Stage</th>


                <tr th:each="aProject : ${projectsList}">

                    <td th:text="${}"></td>
                    <td th:text="${aProject.stage}"></td>
                    <td th:text="${aProject.description}"></td>




        <h4 class='text-center'>Employee Details</h4>


                    <th scope="col">Employee Name</th>
                    <th scope="col">Employee Email Address</th>

                <tr th:each="anEmployee : ${employeesList}">

                    <td th:text="${anEmployee.firstName} + ${anEmployee.lastName}"></td>
                    <td th:text="${}"></td>





Screen shots:

In Chrome Browser

(In Firefox)(2)