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Writing char buffer in integer variables using c++. How to avoid writing the same piece of code for every variable?

I am trying to convert a char buffer into multiple int variables. This is what i got so far after a day of trying.

ZeroMemory(buf, 4096);
            int bytesReceived = recv(sock, buf, 4096, 0);
            if (bytesReceived > 0)
            {
                /*for (int i = 0; i < bytesReceived; i++)
                {
                    cout << hex << (int)buf(i);
                }*/
                std::stringstream ss;
                std::stringstream aa;
                for (int i = 0; i < 2; i++)
                    ss << std::hex << (int)buf(i);

                unsigned result;
                ss >> result;
                int Number1 = result;
                cout << Number1 << "n";

                for (int j = 2; j < 4; j++)
                    aa << std::hex << (int)buf(j);

                unsigned result2;
                aa >> result2;
                int Number2 = result2;
                cout << Number2 << "n";
            }

This gives me in the console the desired number 20000 and 10000. Now how do i do this without writing for every time i want to do this, this whole part:

for (int j = 2; j < 4; j++)
                    aa << std::hex << (int)buf(j);

                unsigned result2;
                aa >> result2;
                int Number2 = result2;
                cout << Number2 << "n";

My brain is now fried after getting to whis point from zero knowledge. Would appreciate it if someone could help me out.

encoding – How to investigate Fortiguard alert for buffer overflow?

For a few days, Fortiguard sends me this alert: Quest.NetVault.Backup.Multipart.Request.Header.Buffer.Overflow

The packets come from the visitor wifi network and they are sent to google.com.

I sent a message to Fortinet support and waiting for the answer.

I assume it can be a false positive but the attack context in alert look like:

"AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA8dKW2P=AAAAA" 

(not the real string but it contains some “AAAAA” and some base64 string).

How can I investigate further?

[GET] Ethical Hacking, Penetration Testing: Buffer Overflow | NewProxyLists


  1. Ziplack

    Ziplack
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    [GET] Ethical Hacking, Penetration Testing: Buffer Overflow

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    thanks for help man

     

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opengl – Why does my stencil buffer allow pixels through?

I’m rendering a scene using OpenGL. The scene consists of a grassy environment and a small lake (visible as two surfaces). To achieve water surface transparency, I’m using a stencil buffer to render water surfaces separately from other geometry. For context, here’s a screenshot of the scene without water surfaces:

Scene without water surfaces rendered.

Here’s the same scene, but with water surfaces stenciled out (the black portions of the screen):

Water surfaces stenciled out, but not rendered.

Here’s the fragment shader I’m using (where fSource is fullscreen UV coordinates). As you can see, it simply samples from a previously-used frame buffer and outputs the pixel directly to the screen. With stenciling enabled, only pixels not covered by a water surface are rendered.

#version 440 core

in vec2 fSource;

out vec4 outColor;

uniform sampler2D image;

void main()
{
    outColor = texture(image, fSource);
}

Here’s the problem. When I change this fragment shader to output a solid color, those underwater pixels are suddenly visible (the stencil buffer and stencil settings have not changed). What I’d expect here is non-submerged pixels to be purple, but the water surface pixels (previously black) to remain black (since they should still be rejected through stenciling). Instead, everything is purple, including the water surface.

#version 440 core

out vec4 outColor;

void main()
{
    outColor = vec4(1, 0, 1, 1);
}

Direct color output (purple) causing pixels to not be rejected through stenciling.

As an additional test, I tried rendering only pixels under the water surfaces with a solid color. These pixels should be rejected via stenciling (appearing black, just like before), but for some reason, they’re visible.

#version 440 core

in vec2 fSource;

out vec4 outColor;

uniform sampler2D image;
uniform sampler2D positions;

void main()
{
    vec3 position = texture(positions, fSource).xyz;

    // The water surfaces happen to sit at Y value 7.85.
    if (p.y < 7.85)
    {
        outColor = vec4(1, 1, 0, 1);
    }
    else
    {
        outColor = texture(image, fSource);
    }
}

Submerged pixels showing up, seemingly ignoring the stencil buffer.

I confirmed the problem by instead sampling with shifted UV coordinates (rather than outputting solid yellow). Again, pixels are showing up on the water surfaces, seemingly ignoring the stencil buffer.

#version 440 core

in vec2 fSource;

out vec4 outColor;

uniform sampler2D image;
uniform sampler2D positions;

void main()
{
    vec3 position = texture(positions, fSource).xyz;

    // The water surfaces happen to sit at Y value 7.85.
    if (p.y < 7.85)
    {
        outColor = texture(image, fSource + vec2(0.1, 0));
    }
    else
    {
        outColor = texture(image, fSource);
    }
}

Shifted UV pixels still showing up through the stencil buffer.

My understanding of stenciling is that it prevents the fragment shader from running at all on certain portions of the screen (i.e. fragments pass or fail based on stencil settings). If that were true, then no matter what the fragment shader outputs, that pixel should remain black (in this context). Clearly, the fragment shader is still being run for pixels that should be rejected due to stenciling, which means I must be misunderstanding how the stencil buffer works.

Why is the fragment shader still running on pixels that should be rejected through stenciling?

Update 1: here are my stencil settings. No other objects (apart from water surfaces) write to the stencil buffer.

// Render water surfaces. 0x10 represents water.
glEnable(GL_STENCIL_TEST);
glStencilMask(0xFF);
glStencilFunc(GL_ALWAYS, 0x10, 0xFF);
glStencilOp(GL_KEEP, GL_KEEP, GL_REPLACE);

BindWaterFrameBuffer();
BindWaterShader();
DrawWaterSurfaces();

// Render the scene. Due to the stencil settings, only non-surface pixels should be rendered.
glStencilMask(0x00);
glStencilFunc(GL_EQUAL, 0x00, 0xFF);
glStencilOp(GL_KEEP, GL_KEEP, GL_KEEP);

BindDefaultFrameBuffer();
BindSceneShader();
DrawFullscreenQuad();

Update 2: here’s another screenshot showing the submerged solid color test, but with a lower Y threshold (three meters below the water). What appears to be happening, then, is that pixels sampled using the GLSL texture function correctly honor the stencil buffer, while direct color outputs don’t. However, even that can’t quite be true since, as shown above, sampling pixels outside the stenciled portion of the screen still results in those pixels showing up.

#version 440 core

in vec2 fSource;

out vec4 outColor;

uniform sampler2D image;
uniform sampler2D positions;

void main()
{
    vec3 position = texture(positions, fSource).xyz;

    // The water surfaces happen to sit at Y value 7.85, but here, I'm using a threshold three meters below that.
    if (p.y < 4.85)
    {
        outColor = vec4(1, 1, 0, 1);
    }
    else
    {
        outColor = texture(image, fSource);
    }
}

Submerged pixels rendered using a solid color, but a few meters below the water surface.


Correct way to set up camera buffer [DirectX]

I would like to play with two different implementation of particle system in my project (ok, actually not mine, but I am working on it).
I copied the particle system successfully, however, faced the camera buffer initialization problem, highlight this code:

bool ParticleShader::Render(Direct3DManager* direct, ParticleSystem* particlesystem, Camera* camera)
{
    bool result;

    result = SetShaderParameters(direct->GetDeviceContext(), camera, direct->GetWorldMatrix(), camera->GetViewMatrix(), direct->GetProjectionMatrix(), particlesystem->GetTexture());
    if (!result)
        return false;

    RenderShader(direct->GetDeviceContext(), particlesystem->GetVertexCount(), particlesystem->GetInstaceCount(), particlesystem->GetIndexCount());
    return true;
}

If I just call SetShaderParameters with the same args, there is a bug obviously: particle system scene sticks to the camera (originally, it looks like this).

I checked the params in debug mode and found out that the difference is in the World matrix. The DXUT CFirstPersonCamera is used in my project and it changed the World matrix while moving around the scene whereas in the original particle system project it’s constant (identity matrix). I even checked my assumption and hardcoded it, but got another bug.

I understand that there is a difference between DXUT camera and the default project camera at the ideological level. Nevertheless, I am a newbie in Graphic it’s too difficult to realize how to change the code in a proper way.

Thank you in advance

directx – DX12 – how to update part of a buffer?

I’m just getting started in DX12 after a bit of time in Vulkan, I am trying to update a part of a dynamically indexed buffer I’m using to hold mesh transforms.

I’m using the MSFT MiniEngine examples which include wrappers for upload buffers, and am not sure if I can use them to update an existing buffer, or if they’re supposed to be the main resource used in place of the “GpuBuffer” in the same engine.

Any specific insight into the use of those classes would be really useful, but more generally, is it possible to update part of a buffer, or will I have to upload a copy of the whole thing?

Obviously a simple example would be brilliant if anyone has one..

vertex buffer – update vertices and indices in OPENGL

Hi I want to make change and update the vertices and indices of the 3d object iam new to openGL and I do not know if this the right place to ask this question. I read and search about that and I found that I should bind VAO VBO and make that but nothing changed in vertices and indices the vertices vector class type hass the position and normal and uv and the vertices vector class type is int so I wonder how can I make changes to this two vector when I translate or scale the model and her is the code :

// Create buffers/arrays
glGenVertexArrays(1, &this->VAO);
glGenBuffers(1, &this->VBO);
glGenBuffers(1, &this->EBO);

glBindVertexArray(this->VAO);
// Load data into vertex buffers
glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, this->VBO);
// A great thing about structs is that their memory layout is sequential for all its items.
// The effect is that we can simply pass a pointer to the struct and it translates perfectly to a glm::vec3/2 array which
// again translates to 3/2 floats which translates to a byte array.
glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER,this->vertices.size() * sizeof(vertex), &this->vertices(0), GL_STATIC_DRAW);

glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, this->EBO);
glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, this->indices.size() * sizeof(int), &this->indices(0), GL_STATIC_DRAW);

// Set the vertex attribute pointers
// Vertex Positions
glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(vertex), (GLvoid*)0);
// Vertex Normals
glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);
glVertexAttribPointer(1, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(vertex), (GLvoid*)offsetof(vertex, normal));
// Vertex Texture Coords
glEnableVertexAttribArray(2);
glVertexAttribPointer(2, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, sizeof(vertex), (GLvoid*)offsetof(vertex, uv));

glBindVertexArray(0);

c++ – Single Producer Single Consumer lockless ring buffer implementation

I am writing a simple ring buffer for my own education. Below is a crack at a strategy described in http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~pclee/www/pubs/ancs09poster.pdf : Producer and Consumer keep local copies of the write and read indexes on different cache lines and to the extent possible avoid touching the shared versions of the same. Performance seems to be on par with the boost spspc queue. Any pointers on how to improve this are appreciated. I am using volatile variables rather than std::atomic because, for reasons I do not understand, performance is better with volatile. Any insight there would be very welcome. I understand that without std::atomic the code might only work on x86_64.

Thanks in advance!

#include <array>
#include <atomic>
#include <limits>
#include <uchar.h>

// Single Producer Single Consumer ring buffer.
// based on http://www.cse.cuhk.edu.hk/~pclee/www/pubs/ancs09poster.pdf

template <class T, size_t MAX_SZ = 10>
class RingBuffer {

   static const size_t cache_line = 64;

 public:
   RingBuffer()
       : // Shared control variables
         shared_r(0), shared_w(0),
         // Consumer state
         consumer_w(0), consumer_r(0),
         // Producer state
         producer_r(0), producer_w(0), uncommited_writes(0) {}

   // Called only by the single producer thread
   // -----------------------------------------
   template <class... ARG>
   bool emplace_enqueue_one(ARG &&... arg) {
      auto result = emplace_enqueue_batch(std::forward<ARG>(arg)...);
      commit_writes();
      return result;
   }

   template <class... ARG>
   bool emplace_enqueue_batch(ARG &&... arg) {

      // Where would the write position be after we enqueue this element?
      size_t next_w = calc_next(producer_w);

      // We always keep an empty slot between the read and write
      // positions, rather than fill our entire buffer. We do this to
      // be able to distinguish between empty (w == r) and full
      // (next(w) == r) buffers. Since we are consulting the
      // producer's copy of the shared read position (producer_r), not
      // the actual read position (shared_r), we might get a false
      // positive (that is we might think we are full when we are not)
      // but not a false negative (that is we think the queue is not
      // full we are right)
      if (next_w == producer_r) {
         // At this point we might be full. To be sure we need to do
         // the more expensive read of the shared read position
         // variable
         size_t actual_r = get_shared_r();
         if (next_w == actual_r) {
            // We are indeed full. At this point we might have to
            // force a commit so that the consumer can see (and drain)
            // uncommited writes.
            commit_writes();
            return false;
         } else
            // We are not actually full, update our local copy of the
            // read position and carry on.
            producer_r = actual_r;
      }

      // Enqueue
      new (&buffer(producer_w)) T(std::forward<ARG>(arg)...);

      // Update our copy of the write position but do not actually
      // update the shared write position. We leave it up to the
      // caller as to when the writes should be visible to the
      // consumer. This allows the caller to amortize the expensive
      // update fo the shared_w variable over multiple writes.
      producer_w = next_w;
      uncommited_writes++;
      return true;
   }

   void commit_writes() {
      if (uncommited_writes) {
         uncommited_writes = 0;
         set_shared_w(producer_w);
      }
   }

   // Called only by the single consumer thread
   // -----------------------------------------
   template <class C>
   size_t consume_one(C &&c) {
      return consume_(std::forward<C>(c), 1);
   }

   template <class C>
   size_t consume_all(C &&c) {
      return consume_(std::forward<C>(c), std::numeric_limits<size_t>::max());
   }

 private:
   template <class C>
   size_t consume_(C c, size_t max_consume_count) {
      size_t consumed_count = 0;
      while (consumed_count < max_consume_count) {
         // Could we be empty?
         if (consumer_w == consumer_r) {
            // We could, but to be sure we have to do the expensive
            // read of the shared write position.
            size_t actual_w = get_shared_w();
            if (consumer_r == actual_w) {
               // We are actually empty. If we managed to read
               // anything so far then update the shared read
               // position.
               if (consumed_count)
                  set_shared_r(consumer_r);
               return consumed_count;
            } else
               // We were not actually empty. Update our copy of the
               // write position. We will do the read below.
               consumer_w = actual_w;
         }
         consumed_count++;
         c(buffer(consumer_r));
         buffer(consumer_r).~T();
         consumer_r = calc_next(consumer_r);
      }
      // If we reach this point that means we were able to consume
      // max_consume_count items, so we need to update the shared_r
      // position.
      set_shared_r(consumer_r);
      return consumed_count;
   }
   size_t calc_next(size_t p) const {
      if (p < (MAX_SZ - 1))
         return p + 1;
      else
         return 0;
   }

   size_t get_shared_r() { return shared_r; }
   void set_shared_r(size_t r) { shared_r = r; }
   size_t get_shared_w() { return shared_w; }
   void set_shared_w(size_t w) { shared_w = w; }

   // cacheline 1 : shared control variables
   // read position is known to be larger or equal than this
   volatile size_t shared_r;
   // write position is known to be larger or equal than this
   volatile size_t shared_w;
   char padding1(cache_line - 2 * sizeof(size_t));

   // cacheline 2: consumer state
   size_t consumer_w; // last known write position (to the consumer)
   size_t consumer_r; // current consumer read position
   char padding2(cache_line - 2 * sizeof(size_t));

   // cacheline 3: producer state
   size_t producer_r;        // last known read position (to the producer)
   size_t producer_w;        // current producer write position
   size_t uncommited_writes; // how far ahead is producer_w from shared_w
   char padding3(cache_line - 3 * sizeof(size_t));

   // cache line 5: start of actual buffer
   std::array<T, MAX_SZ> buffer;
};
```