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## 8 – Why is my code called again written on build form?

I have a form and i call an API tahta brings huge data on build form.
But when i call Ajax on other form elements , the whole code for form(buildForm, constructor ) is called again and again. There is a way to check triggering element but the code is called twice again once due to ajax Callback and once due to validateForm. I want a solution so that the Api are only called once, what solution i can use for this

``````<?php

namespace Drupalfapi_exampleForm;

use DrupalCoreFormFormStateInterface;

/**
* Implements the ajax demo form controller.
*
* This example demonstrates using ajax callbacks to populate the options of a
* color select element dynamically based on the value selected in another
* select element in the form.
*
* @see DrupalCoreFormFormBase
* @see DrupalCoreFormConfigFormBase
*/
class AjaxDemo extends DemoBase {

/**
* {@inheritdoc}
*/
public function getFormId() {
return 'fapi_example_ajax_demo';
}

/**
* {@inheritdoc}
*/
public function buildForm(array \$form, FormStateInterface \$form_state) {
\$form('temperature') = (
'#title' => \$this->t('Temperature'),
'#type' => 'select',
'#options' => \$this->getColorTemperatures(),
'#empty_option' => \$this->t('- Select a color temperature -'),
'#ajax' => (
// Could also use (get_class(\$this), 'updateColor').
'callback' => '::updateColor',
'wrapper' => 'color-wrapper',
),
);
print("API call");
\$form('color_wrapper') = (
'#type' => 'container',
'#attributes' => ('id' => 'color-wrapper'),
);

\$temperature = \$form_state->getValue('temperature');
if (!empty(\$temperature)) {
\$form('color_wrapper')('color') = (
'#type' => 'select',
'#title' => \$this->t('Color'),
'#options' => \$this->getColorsByTemperature(\$temperature),
);
}

// Add a submit button that handles the submission of the form.
\$form('actions') = (
'#type' => 'actions',
'submit' => (
'#type' => 'submit',
'#value' => \$this->t('Submit'),
),
);

return \$form;
}

/**
* Ajax callback for the color dropdown.
*/
public function updateColor(array \$form, FormStateInterface \$form_state) {
return \$form('color_wrapper');
}

/**
* Returns colors that correspond with the given temperature.
*
* @param string \$temperature
*   The color temperature for which to return a list of colors. Can be either
*   'warm' or 'cool'.
*
* @return array
*   An associative array of colors that correspond to the given color
*   temperature, suitable to use as form options.
*/
protected function getColorsByTemperature(\$temperature) {
return \$this->getColors()(\$temperature)('colors');
}

/**
* Returns a list of color temperatures.
*
* @return array
*   An associative array of color temperatures, suitable to use as form
*   options.
*/
protected function getColorTemperatures() {
return array_map(function (\$color_data) {
return \$color_data('name');
}, \$this->getColors());
}

public function validateForm(array &\$form, FormStateInterface \$form_state) {
\$form_values = \$form_state->getValues();
print("Sssaaa");
}

/**
* Returns an array of colors grouped by color temperature.
*
* @return array
*   An associative array of color data, keyed by color temperature.
*/
protected function getColors() {
return (
'warm' => (
'name' => \$this->t('Warm'),
'colors' => (
'red' => \$this->t('Red'),
'orange' => \$this->t('Orange'),
'yellow' => \$this->t('Yellow'),
),
),
'cool' => (
'name' => \$this->t('Cool'),
'colors' => (
'blue' => \$this->t('Blue'),
'purple' => \$this->t('Purple'),
'green' => \$this->t('Green'),
),
),
);
}

}
``````

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## unity – “Failed to load alembic” Unity3D after build

Facing difficulties with alembic after building for x86_x64 windows. Alembic files aren’t being loaded or read and I am getting this error in the log file

I am using unity 2019.4.16f1 and tried with both Alembic packages 1.0.7(verified with my unity version they say) and 2.1.2

Anyone can help me with this?

failed to load alembic at C:/Unity Projects/TD_Project/Builds/PC/TD_Project_Data/StreamingAssetsAssets/TD_Project/Models/Towers/Bomb Turret/Models (Animated)/Bomb turret 3rd animation.ABC 0x00007FF92D401D1C (UnityPlayer) 0x00007FF92D405519 (UnityPlayer) 0x00007FF92D3EC3D8 (UnityPlayer) 0x00007FF92E6A85AD (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DF4F45A (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x0000024BFBB0874D (Mono JIT Code) (wrapper managed-to-native) UnityEngine.DebugLogHandler:Internal_Log (UnityEngine.LogType,UnityEngine.LogOption,string,UnityEngine.Object) 0x0000024BFBB0806B (Mono JIT Code) (DebugLogHandler.cs:9) UnityEngine.DebugLogHandler:LogFormat (UnityEngine.LogType,UnityEngine.Object,string,object()) 0x0000024BFBB07556 (Mono JIT Code) (Logger.cs:60) UnityEngine.Logger:Log (UnityEngine.LogType,object) 0x0000024C0C2958F2 (Mono JIT Code) (Debug.bindings.cs:127) UnityEngine.Debug:LogError (object) 0x0000024BFBFFC1DB (Mono JIT Code) (AlembicStream.cs:149) UnityEngine.Formats.Alembic.Importer.AlembicStream:AbcLoad (bool,bool) 0x0000024BFBFF8BFB (Mono JIT Code) (AlembicStreamPlayer.cs:75) UnityEngine.Formats.Alembic.Importer.AlembicStreamPlayer:LoadStream (bool) 0x0000024BFC1AACA3 (Mono JIT Code) (AlembicStreamPlayer.cs:117) UnityEngine.Formats.Alembic.Importer.AlembicStreamPlayer:Update () 0x0000024BBF165B38 (Mono JIT Code) (wrapper runtime-invoke) object:runtime_invoke_void__this__ (object,intptr,intptr,intptr) 0x00007FF92C6ED6D0 (mono-2.0-bdwgc) mono_get_runtime_build_info 0x00007FF92C672932 (mono-2.0-bdwgc) mono_perfcounters_init 0x00007FF92C67B98F (mono-2.0-bdwgc) mono_runtime_invoke 0x00007FF92DEBA82D (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DEB74BD (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DE9A8A3 (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DE9A95D (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92D878D80 (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92D87FCFD (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DB4F5DB (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DB3D6D7 (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DB3D79F (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92DB4138D (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF92D42CF2B (UnityPlayer) 0x00007FF92D42B87A (UnityPlayer) 0x00007FF92D430096 (UnityPlayer) 0x00007FF92D433DCB (UnityPlayer) UnityMain 0x00007FF6501A11F2 (TD_Project) 0x00007FF9A6CA7C24 (KERNEL32) BaseThreadInitThunk 0x00007FF9A6E6D4D1 (ntdll) RtlUserThreadStart (Filename: C:buildslaveunitybuildRuntime/Export/Debug/Debug.bindings.h Line: 35)

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## When It Makes Sense To Use Python To Build An Ecommerce Website

Should you develop an eCommerce website from scratch or use an existing solution? There’s an ongoing debate as to the best approach for businesses and which option makes the most financial sense. Both sides have valid points. For some businesses, going off-the-shelf makes more sense, whereas for others, custom development is the only reasonable option. So what’s right for you? To find out, start by asking yourself these three questions:
Does my website need to handle thousands or even millions of users?
Does my website need to handle high loads and provide fast performance?
Does my project require unique features?
If your answer to all these questions is yes, consider building your eCommerce website using Python. To understand why, we’ve analyzed eCommerce development with Python in light of three important factors: scalability, performance, and unique features.
If your answers to these questions are no, you’d better use an eCommerce platform.

## c – Portable Build System for Virtual Machine with Editor and Unit Tests

I am automating the building and unit testing of a personal
project
using shell scripts
, CMake and make on the latest version of Fedora Linux. I have also tested building on the latest version of Ubuntu. I had to decrease the minimum CMake version on Ubuntu to make it work. Parts of the unit testing have previously been reviewed on Code Review
A,
B,
C,
C2.

My original development environment was/is Visual Studio 2019 on Windows 10 Pro, however, to make it easier to get reviews and to create a portable system and application I have developed this build system as well.

It is possible that I could have used CMake for the entire build system, but one of the requirements for this system is that each unit test can build as a separate unit test as well as being combined into other unit tests for regression testing purposes. Each unit test needs to stand on its own because I am using the unit tests to debug the core code, as
well as unit test it. Using only CMake created only one object and binary tree and that was not the intention.

The unit tests themselves are not automated yet, that is the next step in the project. There are currently 2 unit tests that have been completed, the lexical analyzer and the parser. All the other unit tests are an empty shell at this point.

## Requirements:

1. Build on any system that supports the original Borne Shell and CMake.
2. Build the unit tests as individual unit tests and as a single unit test that runs all the previous unit tests.
3. Use regression testing in each progressive unit test to make sure the new code doesn’t break the previous functionality.
4. Build the primary application after all the unit tests have been built.

## What I want out of this review:

1. I have tested the build on Fedora and Ubuntu, I would appreciate if someone test the build on Mac OSX, my Mac died 3 years ago.
2. It’s been a long time since I’ve written shell scripts (at least 6 years and really much longer than that for complex shell scripts).
1. Do my shell scripts follow best practices?
2. How can I improve them?
3. Do you see any portability problems with them?
3. I’ve never written CMake scripts before, all suggestions will be helpful.
4. It may be that this last request is off-topic, but how could I build this on Windows 10 using the scripts and CMake? That would make the build system truly portable.

You can review only the shell scripts or only the CMake code if you prefer. The shell scripts are first follow by 3 CMakeLists.txt files.

## Build Directory Structure and Build Files

``````VMWithEditor
buildAll.sh
buildClean.sh

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests:
buildAllDebug.sh
buildAllRelease.sh

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/CommandLine_UnitTest/CommandLine_UnitTest:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/Common_UnitTest_Code:
CodeReview.md
unit_test_logging.c
UTL_unit_test_logging.h

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/ControlConsole_UnitTest/ControlConsole_UnitTest:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/Editor_UnitTest/Editor_UnitTest:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/HRF_UnitTest/HRF_UnitTest:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/Parser_Unit_Test/Parser_Unit_Test:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/RunAllUnitTests/RunAllUnitTests:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/State_Machine_Unit_Test/State_Machine_Unit_Test:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt

VMWithEditor/VMWithEditor/UnitTests/VirtualMachine_UnitTest/VirtualMachine_UnitTest:
buildDebug.sh
buildRelease.sh
CMakeLists.txt
``````

I am presenting the shell scripts first and then the CMakeLists.txt files.

## Top Shell Script Level Code

### VMWithEditor/buildAll.sh

``````#! /usr/bin/sh
#
# Build the input version of the Virtual MAchine and all the unit tests
# Stop on any build errors.
#
if ( -z "\$1" ) ; then
echo "Usage: build.sh BUILDTYPE where BUILDTYPE is Debug or Release."
exit 1
elif ( "\$1" != 'Debug' ) && ( "\$1" != 'Release' ) ; then
printf "n unknow build type %s n" "\$1"
exit 1
fi
#
# Build the necessary variables
#
BUILDTYPE="\$1"
UNITTESTDIRECTORY="./VMWithEditor/UnitTests"
SHELLFILE="buildAll\${BUILDTYPE}.sh";
VMSHELLFILE="build\${BUILDTYPE}.sh";
FULLSPECSHELLFILE="\${UNITTESTDIRECTORY}/\${SHELLFILE}";
LOGFILE="build\${BUILDTYPE}log.txt"
#
# Execute the build scripts
#
# Build The Unit Tests
#
if ( -d "\${UNITTESTDIRECTORY}" ) ; then
if ( -f "\${FULLSPECSHELLFILE}" ) ; then
echo "Building \$UNITTESTDIRECTORY";
cd "\${UNITTESTDIRECTORY}" || exit
./"\${SHELLFILE}" > "\${LOGFILE}" 2>&1
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
echo "Unit Test Build Failed!"
exit \$retVal
fi
cd ../ || exit
fi
#
# Build the Virtual Machine with Editor
#
if ( -f "./buildDebug.sh" ) ; then
./"\${VMSHELLFILE}" > "\${LOGFILE}" 2>&1
retVal=\$?
if ( \${retVal} -ne 0 ); then
echo "Virtual Machine With Editor Build Failed!"
echo "Check logs for details"
exit \${retVal}
else
printf "%s Version Virtual Machine With Editor Build and Unit Test Build Completed!n" "\${BUILDTYPE}"
exit 0
fi
fi
fi
``````

### VMWithEditor/buildClean.sh

``````#! /usr/bin/bash
#
# Build the release version of the Virtual Machine and all the unit tests
# Stop on any build errors.
#
UNITTESTDIRECTORY="./VMWithEditor/UnitTests"
if ( -d "\$UNITTESTDIRECTORY" ) ; then
cd "\$UNITTESTDIRECTORY" || exit
make clean
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
exit \$retVal
fi
cd ../ || exit
make clean
fi
``````

## Middle Layer Shell Scripts

The 2 following shell scripts are in the UnitTests directory:

### buildAllDebug.sh

``````#! /usr/bin/bash

# Build the debug version of all the unit tests
# Stop on any build errors.

for i in *
do
if ( -d \$i ) ; then
TESTDIRECTORY="\$i/\$i"
SHELLFILE="\$TESTDIRECTORY/buildDebug.sh";
if ( -f \$SHELLFILE ) ; then
echo "Building \$TESTDIRECTORY";
cd "\$TESTDIRECTORY"
./buildDebug.sh >& buildDebuglog.txt
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
exit \$retVal
fi
cd ../..
fi
fi
done;
``````

### buildAllRelease.sh

``````#! /usr/bin/bash

# Build the debug version of all the unit tests
# Stop on any build errors.

for i in *
do
if ( -d \$i ) ; then
TESTDIRECTORY="\$i/\$i"
SHELLFILE="\$TESTDIRECTORY/buildRelease.sh";
if ( -f \$SHELLFILE ) ; then
echo "Building \$TESTDIRECTORY";
cd "\$TESTDIRECTORY"
./buildRelease.sh >& buildReleaselog.txt
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
exit \$retVal
fi
cd ../..
fi
fi
done;
``````

## Lowest Level Shell Scripts

The following 2 shell scripts are in all the unit test directories where cmake is executed, the first builds a debugable version the second builds an optimized release version.

### buildDebug.sh

``````#! /bin/sh

# Creat a Debug build directory and then build the target within the Debug directory
# Stop on any build errors and stop the parent process.

mkdir Debug
cd Debug || exit
cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug ..
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
printf "nncmake failed %s!nn" "\$retVal"
exit \$retVal
fi
make VERBOSE=1
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
printf "nnmake failed! %snn" "\$retVal"
exit \$retVal
fi
``````

### buildRelease.sh

``````#! /bin/sh

# Creat a Release build directory and then build the target within the Release directory
# Stop on any build errors and stop the parent process.

mkdir Release
cd Release || exit
cmake -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Release ..
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
printf "nncmake failed %s!nn" "\$retVal"
exit \$retVal
fi
make
retVal=\$?
if ( \$retVal -ne 0 ); then
printf "nnmake failed! %snn" "\$retVal"
exit \$retVal
fi
``````

There are 2.3 unit tests that actually test the existing code and one unit test that includes all the other unit tests which is working to the extent that the two existing unit tests work (testing is successful for all three tests). The first 2 CMake files presented are the lexical analyzer unit test and the parser unit test. The lexical analyzer unit test is fully complete and was used to debug the lexical analyzer. The parser unit test is complete, it executes the lexical analyzer unit tests prior to executing the parser unit tests. The parser unit test was used to debug the parser code in the main project.

## The Lexical Analyzer Unit Test CMakeLists.txt file:

``````cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.16.1)

set(EXECUTABLE_NAME "Lexical_Analyzer_Unit_Test.exe")

project(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} LANGUAGES C VERSION 1.0)

if("\${CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE}" STREQUAL "Debug")
set(GCC_WARN_COMPILE_FLAGS  " -Wall ")
set(CMAKE_C_FLAGS  "\${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} \${GCC_WARN_COMPILE_FLAGS}")
endif()

set(VM_SRC_DIR "../../..")
set(COMMON_TEST_DIR "../../Common_UnitTest_Code")

add_executable(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} internal_character_transition_unit_tests.c internal_sytax_state_tests.c lexical_analyzer_test_data.c lexical_analyzer_unit_test_main.c lexical_analyzer_unit_test_utilities.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/error_reporting.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/lexical_analyzer.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/safe_string_functions.c \${COMMON_TEST_DIR}/unit_test_logging.c)

set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD 99)
set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD_REQUIRED True)

configure_file(VMWithEditorConfig.h.in VMWithEditorConfig.h)

target_compile_definitions(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC UNIT_TESTING)
target_compile_definitions(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC LEXICAL_UNIT_TEST_ONLY)
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC "\${PROJECT_BINARY_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${VM_SRC_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${COMMON_TEST_DIR}")
``````

## The Parser Unit Test CMakeLists.txt file:

``````cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.16.1)

set(EXECUTABLE_NAME "Parser_Unit_Test.exe")

project(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} LANGUAGES C VERSION 1.0)

if("\${CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE}" STREQUAL "Debug")
set(GCC_WARN_COMPILE_FLAGS  " -Wall ")
set(CMAKE_C_FLAGS  "\${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} \${GCC_WARN_COMPILE_FLAGS}")
endif()

set(VM_SRC_DIR "../../..")
set(LEXICAL_TEST_DIR "../../State_Machine_Unit_Test/State_Machine_Unit_Test")
set(COMMON_TEST_DIR "../../Common_UnitTest_Code")

add_executable(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} internal_parser_tests.c  parser_unit_test.c  parser_unit_test_main.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/error_reporting.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/human_readable_program_format.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/lexical_analyzer.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/opcode.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/parser.c \${VM_SRC_DIR}/safe_string_functions.c  \${VM_SRC_DIR}/virtual_machine.c \${COMMON_TEST_DIR}/unit_test_logging.c \${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/internal_character_transition_unit_tests.c \${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/internal_sytax_state_tests.c \${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/lexical_analyzer_test_data.c \${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/lexical_analyzer_unit_test_main.c \${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/lexical_analyzer_unit_test_utilities.c)

set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD 99)
set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD_REQUIRED True)

configure_file(VMWithEditorConfig.h.in VMWithEditorConfig.h)

target_compile_definitions(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC UNIT_TESTING)
target_compile_definitions(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC PARSER_UNIT_TEST_ONLY)
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC "\${PROJECT_BINARY_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${VM_SRC_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${COMMON_TEST_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}")
``````

## The RunAllUnitTests CMakeLists.txt file:

This file is the most complex of all the CMakeLists.txt files. It includes code from 7 other unit tests.

``````cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.16.1)

set(EXECUTABLE_NAME "Run_All_Unit_Tests.exe")

project(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} LANGUAGES C VERSION 1.0)

if("\${CMAKE_BUILD_TYPE}" STREQUAL "Debug")
set(GCC_WARN_COMPILE_FLAGS  " -Wall ")
set(CMAKE_C_FLAGS  "\${CMAKE_CXX_FLAGS} \${GCC_WARN_COMPILE_FLAGS}")
endif()

set(VM_SRC_DIR "../../..")
set(COMMON_TEST_DIR "../../Common_UnitTest_Code")
set(LEXICAL_TEST_DIR "../../State_Machine_Unit_Test/State_Machine_Unit_Test")
set(PARSER_TEST_DIR "../../Parser_Unit_Test/Parser_Unit_Test")
set(CMD_LINE_TEST_DIR "../../CommandLine_UnitTest/CommandLine_UnitTest")
set(HRF_TEST_DIR "../../HRF_UnitTest/HRF_UnitTest")

run_all_unit_tests_main.c
\${HRF_TEST_DIR}/hrf_unit_test_main.c
\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/lexical_analyzer_unit_test_main.c
\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/internal_character_transition_unit_tests.c
\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/internal_sytax_state_tests.c
\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/lexical_analyzer_test_data.c
\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}/lexical_analyzer_unit_test_utilities.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/error_reporting.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/safe_string_functions.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/arg_flags.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/file_io_vm.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/opcode.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/parser.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/default_program.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/lexical_analyzer.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/virtual_machine.c
\${PARSER_TEST_DIR}/parser_unit_test_main.c
\${PARSER_TEST_DIR}/internal_parser_tests.c
\${PARSER_TEST_DIR}/parser_unit_test.c
\${CMD_LINE_TEST_DIR}/command_line_unit_test_main.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/error_reporting.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/arg_flags.c
\${VM_SRC_DIR}/safe_string_functions.c
\${COMMON_TEST_DIR}/unit_test_logging.c
)

set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD 99)
set(CMAKE_C_STANDARD_REQUIRED True)

configure_file(VMWithEditorConfig.h.in VMWithEditorConfig.h)

target_compile_definitions(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC UNIT_TESTING)
target_compile_definitions(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC ALL_UNIT_TESTING)
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PUBLIC "\${PROJECT_BINARY_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${VM_SRC_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${COMMON_TEST_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${LEXICAL_TEST_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${CMD_LINE_TEST_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${PARSER_TEST_DIR}")
target_include_directories(\${EXECUTABLE_NAME} PRIVATE "\${HRF_TEST_DIR}")
``````

## lo.logic – Are there “typical” formal systems that have mutual consistency proofs? How long a chain of these can we build?

No, this cannot happen, although it’s a little bit trickier than one might expect to prove this!

First, a miniature result:

Suppose $$T,S$$ are computably axiomatizable theories in the language of arithmetic, each containing the theory $$ISigma_1$$, with $$Tvdash Con(S)$$ and $$Svdash Con(T)$$. Then $$T$$ and $$S$$ are inconsistent.

If you haven’t seen $$ISigma_1$$ before, the only points you need to know are that it is finitely axiomatizable, strong enough for Godel’s theorems to be applicable, and self-provably $$Sigma_1$$-complete. Note that neither of the better-known arithmetics $$mathsf{Q}$$ or $$mathsf{PA}$$ will suffice: $$mathsf{Q}$$ doesn’t prove its own $$Sigma_1$$-completeness since it lacks induction, and $$mathsf{PA}$$ isn’t finitely axiomatizable.

PROOF. It will be enough (by symmetry) to show that $$T$$ is inconsistent.

Since $$ISigma_1$$ is finitely axiomatizable and proves its own $$Sigma_1$$-completeness, we have that $$T$$ proves “$$S$$ is $$Sigma_1$$-complete:” just verify in $$T$$ an $$S$$-proof of any single sentence axiomatizing $$ISigma_1$$. Consequently, $$T$$ proves the sentence $$neg Con(T)rightarrow (Svdash (neg Con(T)))$$.

On the other hand, since $$Svdash Con(T)$$ and $$T$$ is $$Sigma_1$$-complete we have that $$T$$ proves $$Svdash Con(T)$$. Putting this together with the above paragraph, we get a $$T$$-proof of “If $$T$$ is inconsistent, then $$S$$ proves $$Con(T)wedgeneg Con(T)$$” – that is, a $$T$$-proof of $$neg Con(T)rightarrowneg Con(S)$$.

But since $$Tvdash Con(S)$$, this gives a $$T$$-proof of $$Con(T)$$ – so $$T$$ is inconsistent.

The above can be improved, however.

First there’s the issue of generalizing beyond $$n=2$$. This isn’t very interesting though, since it’s clear how to proceed: simply iterate the above idea by applying “provable $$Sigma_1$$-completeness” over and over again.

More interestingly there’s the language issue: $$mathsf{ZFC}$$ for example is not a theory in the language of arithmetic, so the above result doesn’t immediately apply to it. This can be handled via the notion of an interpretation. Basically, a theory $$A$$ interprets a theory $$B$$ if there is some tuple of formulas $$Phi_A$$ in the language of $$A$$ such that for each sentence $$varphiin B$$, the theory $$A$$ proves that the structure defined by $$Phi_A$$ satisfies $$varphi$$. (Think about how $$mathsf{ZFC}$$ implements arithmetic via the finite ordinals, for example.)

Via interpretations, we can generalize the argument above to arbitrary languages. Combined with the generalization past $$n=2$$ above, this gives the stronger result:

Suppose $$T_1,…,T_n$$ are computably axiomatizable theories, each of which interprets $$ISigma_1$$, such that $$T_1vdash Con(T_2)$$, $$T_2vdash Con(T_3)$$, …, $$T_nvdash Con(T_1)$$. Then each $$T_i$$ is inconsistent.

The most difficult part here is being precise about what “$$Con(-)$$” should mean in each of the relevant languages (basically, we just “work along interpretations”).

The final improvement to be made is with respect to the base theory. $$ISigma_1$$ can certainly be pushed down substantially without changing the argument, but this doesn’t get us all the way to $$mathsf{Q}$$. So – dropping back to a more manageable level of generality along the other axes – we’re left with a natural question:

Can there be two computably axiomatizable consistent theories $$T,S$$ in the language of arithmetic containing $$mathsf{Q}$$ such that $$Tvdash Con(S)$$ and $$Svdash Con(T)$$?

If memory serves the answer is still “no,” but I don’t immediately see the proof. (Note that at this point we really should be careful about what specific consistency predicate we’re using – there are certainly easy modifications of the standard consistency predicates which make things go through nicely, basically by restricting attention to a “tame cut” of the natural numbers, but I’m not sure if those modifications are necessary.)

## 9.0 pie – How to build without make clean after making changes in dts with AOSP?

I made few changes in dts and when i gave `make -j8` from my `aosp-root-directory`, I don’t see the changes taking place after i boot up my board. It just quickly builds in a minute or so.

Giving `make clean ` takes about 4 hours. Do i have to give `make clean` everytime i do any changes in my build/dts or can we somehow just clean kernel and build it without cleaning the whole `OUT` directory?