visas – Is Puerto Rico considered As USA for green card holder?

Yes, Puerto Rico is part of the USA for immigration purposes, as is every US territory and possession. You can stay there as long as you wish. In fact, many green card holders live in Puerto Rico and other US territories.

From the USCIS document M-618 (rev. 09/15) Welcome to the United States A Guide for New Immigrants:

The United States now consists of 50 states; the District of Columbia (a special area that is the home of the federal government); the territories of Guam, American Samoa, and the U.S. Virgin Islands; and the Commonwealths of the Northern Mariana Islands and Puerto Rico.

There are a few other minor outlying possessions (such as some protected Pacific islands) which are also part of the USA but traveling to such places requires special permission. They aren’t mentioned because travel to them is extremely rare, and in most cases no one at all lives there, but as they are part of the USA they still count.

Note that many US territories and possessions have different customs and agriculture/biosecurity rules than the mainland US, but this does not affect your immigration status.

Note also that you should bring your green card and passport if you travel to or from Puerto Rico or the US Virgin Islands. While this is a purely domestic flight, and it is not strictly required for you to have your passport, if the flight has an emergency it may need to divert to an airport at an island which is not part of the USA. You will need your travel documents if this happens.

dnd 5e – Is the Midgard Heroes Handbook Centaur race considered as Medium, or Large, for the purpose of grappling and shoving?

In the “Midgard Heroes Handbook” from the Kobold Press, there is a playable character race, the Centaur (not to be confused with the somewhat different Centaur published in Guildmaster’s Guide to Ravnica & Mythic Odysseys of Theros !). Their size is rather unique – a Medium/Large hybrid, so to speak :

Size. Centaurs stand between 8 and 9 feet tall and weigh in excess of 1,000 pounds. Your size is Large.

Humanoid Torso. Although you are Large, you wield weapons and wear armor sized for a Medium creature, thanks to the proportions of your humanoid torso.

It is clear to me that, as a creature with a Large, equine lower part, a Midgard Centaur can be ridden by a Medium creature (provided they’re wearing a saddle), but as a creature with a Medium, humanoid upper part, they cannot wield oversized weaponry.

But what about grappling and shoving ? Are they considered Large, or Medium for such things ? I can see an argument for either interpretation – since they’re of Large category, but have Medium sized hands…

python – What is considered a “decent” project to show in an interview?

I am a Computer Science student beginning my final year.
I heard you need a good portfolio of projects to showcase in job interview.

My question is what is considered a good project? I assume bulding a calculator in java doesn’t answer such criteria…

web applications – What is considered the best approach to use a tecnology like VueJs/React in a website that is fully realoaded?

I’m buiding a website and an admin dashboard in the same project. I’m using VueJs for the admin dashboard (the application is based on ajax comunication to load the subpages, etc). The website, when the user click in a link, the page is fully reloaded because of SEO and so on (exemple: when the user click on a course, the browser goes to the course page). On the website, I have been use jQuery for the login modal and others interactions. I willing to use VueJS also for the website. My question is.. what is considered the best approach to use a tecnology like VueJs/React in a website that is fully realoaded and it’s not an one page website? Should I use those tecnologies?

Ps: If my question is not accepted here, where should I ask this type of question?

dnd 5e – What is considered an enemy for an Orc’s Aggressive trait?

Rules as written, an enemy is anything your DM allows you to consider an enemy.

What is an Enemy?

Enemy is not clearly defined, so there is no clear definition of what is and is not an enemy. It is up to your DM to decide. If you want to give justice to the intent of the rules, then I would say an enemy can only be a creature. Throughout the PHB “enemy” is used only as a descriptor of a creature when we’re looking at the rules of a given mechanic or ability.

Some examples of this:

Warding Flare (PHB 51) Also at 1st level, you can interpose divine light between yourself and an attacking enemy. When you are attacked
by a creature within 30 feet of you

Holy Nimbus (PHB 86) Whenever an enemy creature starts its turn in the bright light, the creature takes 10 radiant damage.

Elder Champion (PHB 87) Enemy creatures within 10 feet of you have disadvantage on saving throws against your paladin spells and
Channel Divinity options.

And finally, a non-mechanical use of enemy. Flavor text uses enemy in the way you’d expect.

Ranger (PHB 89) Rough and wild looking, a human stalks alone through the shadows of trees, hunting the orcs he knows are planning a raid on a nearby farm. Clutching a shortsword in each hand, he becomes a whirlwind of steel, cutting down one enemy after another.

We mention this because it informs the meaning of “Enemy” and how the designers might intend it to be interpreted. Rangers are also well known for their favored enemies, which is one of the best descriptions in the rules of what an enemy can be.

When is a creature an Enemy?

A creature is considered an enemy when you consider it one. And, you can only do so if your DM allows you to. More on that later. Enemies and allies are defined by one creature towards another. A creature cannot define its relationship from the perspective of another creature. I cannot define that Charlie considers me an enemy, because I’m not Charlie. Charlie might well agree with me that we are enemies, but Charlie is the one defining how he feels towards me. In that sense, any creature can be an enemy.

There are even instances where a creature is not aware that you consider it an enemy. Would that mean you can’t treat it as an enemy for abilities? Absolutely not, that would destroy any predication for stealth and deceit, since you wouldn’t be able to cast spells or abilities that target enemies without first making that known to them.

Furthermore, enemy is used in the rules to differentiate who the targets of harmful spells are. “Friendly” spells are never predicated by only being able to target friendly creatures. They can target all creatures. The phrase enemy creature is used in spells so that your actual friends can, for instance, enter your aura of menace without being frightened.

By contrast, a fireball doesn’t hit “enemies” it hits “creatures”, meaning everyone. When enemies are singled out, it is only used to differentiate that your allies and non-enemies are not affected. As such, based on the rules as intended, I wouldn’t allow you to use Aggressive on friendly or non-hostile creatures, as the intent is for you to get closer to your enemies so you can hurt them, not for you to run away or move quicker towards an objective.

Your DM will define what it means to consider a creature an enemy, since the rules do not. Your DM may say

“You may use Aggressive on that NPC, but he will become hostile to you because of your body language and expression.”

He may even ask you to justify it, and could even shoot down your attempts.

“You can say your Orc sees this squirrel as an enemy, but I don’t believe he can flip a switch that easily.”

The onus is on your DM to keep this ability in check for you. Can your character really, honestly say a tree is his enemy? Even if you say “Me find tree insult my race, me hate tree, me ANGRY!” is it actually true? This takes us into the the realm of defining your character and what your DM deems to be reasonable. I would shy away from defining a character on the basis of mechanics, although it’s not against the rules. If you’ve a convincing backstory as to why you hate trees, then by all means a tree can be your enemy.

websites – Why is pastebin considered a high risk service

The company I work at uses zscaler to restrict access to certain websites.

Earlier today, I tried to visit, but got the error message in the picture below:

Website blocked. Not allowed to browse SHN-High Risk Services category. You tried to visit:

Trying to google why pastebin is considered a high risk service, I didn’t really find much, except this one blog post which talks about certain hacker groups pasting sensitive data to the site.

This alone doesn’t seem like a very strong reason to block the site, as there should be a multitude of other options for making information public. What am I missing here?

forms – How to indicate to user that a field is not optional, but that a blank value is considered valid input?

We have forms in our application with a number of strictly required fields (marked with red asterisk, will fail validation if left blank). There is also one field that can be submitted as blank – this field is not marked as required so that validation will let a blank value pass. However, we want to indicate to users that this is not just an ‘optional’ field – it’s a required piece of data, but a blank string is an acceptable option.

What we have found is that just leaving that field optional results in users skimming over and skipping it – they’re just taking the shortest path to complete the form. We want leaving that field blank to be something they consider and make a conscious choice about.

What is a good way to indicate this to the user? I have considered something like putting in a truly required toggle switch that would open the input only if they mark it as ‘yes’ but that would also allow them to just skip over if they didn’t care.

This is a mobile web page that is only used by internal employees who will become familiar with the UX, if that makes any difference.

In case it is useful to clarify why this is needed – users are entering data from physical labels. Some labels have this value on them, others do not. If the label has this value, we need the user to enter that field, but we don’t know up front whether or not any particular label will have that value, so we can’t make the form strictly require the value. The current system results in users not providing that value even when it is on the physical label because they view it as not required.

google play store – Does a marketplace app, where users pay the third party (also users) through our application be considered as in app purchase?

I am planning on building a flutter app and as the title says does a marketplace app, where users pay the third-party (also users) through our application be considered an in-app purchase? The transaction will be facilitated through a payment gateway like Stripe. The third-party provides value (non-physical) to users through our application. We plan on taking a 2% commission on all payments made to these third parties. Since we are planning on taking just 2%, if we have to pay 30% then we just have to take payments from web. Can we do that?

java – Should it be considered a BC break to return clone instead of new self?

(This question applies to the equivalent code in both Java and PHP)

I have a class like this:

class Foo {
    private int $bar;

    public function __construct(int $bar) {
        $this->bar = $bar;

    public function add(int $bar) : Foo {
        return new Foo($this->bar + $bar);

Due to certain reasons (the reason is irrelevant to this question), cloning the object is a faster implementation than calling new Foo, so I can change the add function to this:

public function add(int $bar) : Foo {
    $foo = clone $this; // equivalently, this.clone() in Java
    $foo->bar += $bar;
    return $foo;

If Foo was final, this should not result in any BC issues. Unfortunately, this is not the case. In fact, there is a subclass of Foo in the API:

class HeavyFoo extends Foo {
    private SomeHeavyObject $object;

SomeHeavyObject is a heavy class (as in it references lots of other data), and it should be garbage-collected as soon as unneeded to keep the memory usage low.

Meanwhile, there are lots of users writing this kind of code:

$added = getHeavyFoo()->add(3);

With the assumption that Foo.add will return a light (only containing an int field) object, users insert the result of add to a storage that lives much longer than HeavyObject would. This is not exactly a memory leak, but greatly increases the memory consumption anyway.

However, according to OOP principles, returning a subclass instead of the superclass is totally fine.

Should I bump my semver major version because of this change?

(For those wondering why change to clone: I wrote a PHP extension such that if(ref_count_for($this) > 1) { $this = clone $this; }, so no need to allocate a new object if $this is a temporary that isn’t referenced anywhere else, e.g. the intermediates in $foo->add(1)->add(2)->add(3))

dnd 5e – Are the spells Leomund’s Tiny Hut and Tiny Hut considered the same spell for the purposes of combining magical effects?

The Player’s Handbook contains the spell Leomund’s Tiny Hut, and the Basic Rules contains an SRD version of this spell called Tiny Hut. The descriptions of these spells are completely identical.

The rules for combining magical effects say:

The effects of different spells add together while the durations of those spells overlap. The effects of the same spell cast multiple times don’t combine, however. Instead, the most potent effect–such as the highest bonus–from those castings applies while their durations overlap, or the most recent effect applies if the castings are equally potent and their durations overlap.

Additionally, the Dungeon Master’s Guide contains a more general version of this rule for combining game effects:

Different game features can affect a target at the same time. But when two or more game features have the same name, only the effects of one of them—the most potent one—apply while the durations of the effects overlap.

These spells notably have different names, but are they considered the same spell for the purposes of applying the rules for combining magical and game effects?

This question was inspired by this quesition concerning stacking tiny huts as a countermeasure against dispel magic.