dnd 5e – Are attack rolls or save throws more consistent or predictable?

In D&D 5e, spellcasters often have to choose between spells that can affect a target in a successful melee attack. the fire bolt cantrip (1d10 to 4d10 damage depending on character level), for example, requires an attack roll, while the poison spray cantrip (1d12 to 4d12) requires a target Constitution saving throw. Obviously, this could apply class features other than spells that require a saving throw to avoid an effect.

Suppose two hypothetical spells that are of the same level, cause the same damage of the same type, affect only one (and can therefore be compared most directly with a single attack roll). Don't assume any resistance or immunity for the target, and assume the character is facing a creature from a CR corresponding to their level (as they would often do as part of a group of 4-6) . Also assume that players are experienced, but do not allowed to view Monster manual or other DM resources.

Possible considerations:

  • Many experienced players will know the AC of common monsters, but even when they don't know it, it's easy to understand after a few attack rolls.
  • Most players are often unaware of the full monster ability scores, which determine saving throws.
  • Many DMs drive in secret. Even if they throw opposing save throws in the open, the fact that there are 6 potential save throws (and only 3 common ones) will make it difficult in a given fight for a player to determine the bonus of saving throw from a creature.
  • Monsters have AC guidelines which are typical of a CR ("Monster Statistics by Challenge Rating", DMG p. 274).
  • Many monsters have no saving throw skills. DMG recommends that save throw skills be used primarily to offset save throw penalties from low ability scores.

Given this, and other considerations provided in the response, from the player's point of view will a character succeed more regularly with an attack roll or a save roll, or are the results of attack rolls more predictable than save rolls?

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How to draw consistent pixel art images?

I am fairly new to pixel art design and I had a question about creating large, coherent images as backgrounds in pixel art.

Let's say I draw a small tile on the ground 96x96px and later I want to draw a background with mountains, clearly the image should be considerably larger to fit the background.

The first thing that comes to my mind is that if I put up a larger canvas, then that "pixelated" feeling will go away, but looking at an example, we can see that everything has a coherent feel.

enter description of image here

Do I just have to create a lot of 96×96 images and "stick" them together or is there a way to work on a larger canvas while still getting the feel I want?

I use GIMP if it helps.

design – How to keep user input consistent with supposed input to slow backend calculations?

Context:

I am writing a clinical trial simulator. The user defines future trial options, for example a trial with 100 placebo patients, 200 treated patients, an "optimistic" outcome scenario, etc. There may be 1 to 20,000 of these options. For each option, 10,000 to 100,000 test results are simulated. The simulated data is then used for analysis, for each assumed option.

Implementation:

It is an Angular / Electron desktop application (in the future there will be a web extension). The front end sends a REST API request with trial options. The Python back-end performs simulations in parallel. It stores the results in a PostgreSQL database, with one line per option. The database is located on the user's laptop or on external storage. A single user works on a simulation.

Performance:

Simulations can take a long time, their results requiring a lot of memory. Therefore, once the user has added the trial options, I would only simulate for these additions, rather than for each option. I also allow to interrupt a simulation in progress.

Data consistency:

What the user assumes that the inputs – the trial options – must coincide with the inputs of the last recorded simulations (and subsequent analyzes). Therefore, I always want to inform the user of a difference between the front end and the database. Analyzes will therefore be disabled if there is a difference.

Question:

How to guarantee this consistency? For example, the front end could follow three sets of test options: (1) for completed simulations; (2) for current simulations and (3) for current user inputs without simulation launched. But it seems fragile. Also, I'm not comfortable with using the front end rather than the back end and the database as the source of truth. Does this front end make sense, or should I go with the back end? Or what else would work better?

Note: The architecture of predictive modeling software deals with similar software, albeit with stable user input and a focus on performance. On top of that, I haven't found a lot of relevant information about SE.

web application – How to handle extra spacing with line height when spacing between elements needs to be consistent

We want to design our website so that all elements are spaced 24 pixels apart (paragraphs, form groups, header and content, etc.) and "related" elements (label and form field) are spaced 8 pixels apart. We do this with a flexible spread that works well (we've built a polyfill for browsers that don't support it).

It works very well for non-text elements. But for paragraphs and headers, a line-height > 1 results in additional spacing between the front element and the visual start of the text. The images below are a div, p, and div w / row-gap:24px.

demonstration of line height 1 1.5 line height demonstration demonstration of line height 2

Having this increased space between elements goes against style (my boss is a true follower of constant spacing and will often open Photoshop to count pixels). To avoid this problem, we add psudo-elements to each text element with negative margins to compensate for the upper and lower white spaces. (If CSS supports a leading , this would be easier as it would change the actual spacing between lines of text compared to increasing the height of each line.)

enter description of image here enter description of image here

When looking at other sites, I often see a mess of margins and padding of all different values. Nothing very logical. Do these developers keep playing around with the numbers until it looks good vs having standard components to work with?

Maybe our design / strategy is flawed in one way or another? Is it good that an increased font size (and an increasing line height as well) guarantees more spacing between elements?

How do you handle the extra spacing caused by line-height > 1?

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dnd 5th – Is there an accepted probability of striking that is consistent across all levels and how was it determined?

Is there consensus on the probability of hitting at a generic meeting, appropriate for CR (eg, 50%, 65%, etc.)? Is there a coherent system across levels or levels? How is this value reached? (For example, probable character attack bonus, AC from appropriate opponents …)