amazon web services – AWS XFS performance issues. Stripped setup vs single disk setup

I wanted to share an issue (I guess I may be misunderstanding some concepts) that I’m facing with some benchmarks I’m doing to XFS setups, as we are going to recently migrate a service to a new instance and we would like to have the max. amount of IOPS possible.

We have a Gitolite instance that currently works with a 500GB io1 volume (25K IOPS), we would like to move this service to a new instance and I was considering the possibility of improving the underlying filesystem.
At this moment the filesystem the instance has it’s XFS on top of LVM on that single volume.

I have been doing some benchmarks on moving the service to an instance with:

  • 8 volumes of 50GB – 2500IOPS each of those

These 8 volumes are included in the same LVM group in an stripped configuration. The commands I used to create this stripped setup are:

## Create the LVM PV's

$ pvcreate /dev/nvme(12345678)n1



## Create the volume group:

$ vgcreate test_vol /dev/nvme(12345678)n1



## Create the stripe configuration:

$ lvcreate --extents 100%FREE --stripes 8 --stripesize 256 --name test test_vol


## XFS format the new volume:

$ mkfs.xfs /dev/mapper/test_vol-root -f

And that should be it. Now, benchmarks.

Running this fio test over this virtual volume:

io --name randwrite --ioengine=libaio --iodepth=2 --rw=randwrite --bs=4k --size=400G --numjobs=8 --runtime=300 --group_reporting --filename=/test/testfile --fallocate=none

Shows the following report:

Jobs: 8 (f=8): (w(8))(100.0%)(w=137MiB/s)(w=35.1k IOPS)(eta 00m:00s)
randwrite: (groupid=0, jobs=8): err= 0: pid=627615: Wed Nov 25 13:15:33 2020
  write: IOPS=23.0k, BW=93.7MiB/s (98.2MB/s)(27.4GiB/300035msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=2, max=132220, avg=141.07, stdev=2149.78
    clat (usec): min=3, max=132226, avg=143.46, stdev=2150.25

Which is not bad at all, but executing the very same fio benchmark on another instance with a single volume of 500GB (25K IOPS) shows:

Jobs: 8 (f=8): (w(8))(100.0%)(w=217MiB/s)(w=55.6k IOPS)(eta 00m:00s)
randwrite: (groupid=0, jobs=8): err= 0: pid=11335: Wed Nov 25 12:54:57 2020
  write: IOPS=48.2k, BW=188MiB/s (198MB/s)(55.2GiB/300027msec); 0 zone resets
    slat (usec): min=2, max=235750, avg=130.69, stdev=1861.69

Which is by far much better output than the stripped setup.


We are going to use this instance to host an internal Git server, so I was assuming than an stripped setup would be much better than an instance with a single volume, but those benchmarks show the best setup (in terms of IOPS/bandwidth) is the one with the single disk.

Am I assuming anything wrong? Will the stripped setup work better for random writers(ie. not running out of IOPS)

ripple – Disk Space of Rippled testnet server

I am planning to create rippled testnet server.
According to below site, I need 360 GB Disk Space for 750,000 Ledger versions.
I believe the estimate is for mainnet, but is it same for testnet?
https://xrpl.org/capacity-planning.html

When I run rippled locally on testnet, it seems like ledger size of testnet is less than that of mainnet.
However, I couldn’t find any specification regarding disk space or ledger size of testnet.

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Expand USB image after CHKDSK Insufficient disk space to recover lost data

I have an 8 GB USB drive with corrupted files, I tried CHKDSK /R to recover them but I get the message Insufficient disk space to recover lost data . I did a dd image of the drive and tried qemu-img resize the image +8G to create free space on a 100GB USB drive for the files to be recovered but the image was written with the same amount of GB as original. Is there any method to resize the USB image so I can recover my files ? Also I tried couple of data recovery , paid and free softwares but without luck.

linux – Disk / Volume encryption without password prompt at boot

I am currently looking out for a disk / file-system encryption solution, on Linux, which would not require a password at every reboot instance.

While this will not prevent data theft if the entire system is snitched, it should at least ensure that data remains confidential if only the disk is attempted to be put on a different system.

The system has a TPM chip.

I looked at several solutions –

  • LUKS-dmCrypt : Whichever guide I have followed requires password upon boot. Further, encryption process requires a FS /volume format. Existing non-encrypted volume to encrypted seems like a complicated process which may be difficult to be carried out in an automated and unsupervised way. There are solutions such as this, which bypass boot password prompt by storing it in TPM but I am not able to verify the validity and risks of using something like this, which hasn’t many reviews or comments.

  • Veracrypt : Veracrypt has TPM support, which I suppose does away for the need to provide a boot password, but Veracrypt Release Notes only show TPM support for Windows, not Linux.

  • Self Encrypting Disks : SED SSDs are a viable option, but even they require ATA password set in BIOS and would prompt for a password. I am not sure if it’s possible to store the SED AK in TPM and whether it’s likely to solve the problem. I haven’t yet found any documentation from a manufacturer confirming this, searches on web have also proved futile.

  • Storing the password / key in an unencrypted, removable disk like pen drive : Not an option

  • Changing File system to another which allows something like this : Not an option. Only ext4 or xfs

I know BitLocker on Windows can enable drive level encryption and use TPM for a silent boot, but am not sure what works on Linux. Would like to use SED SSDs, but would a TPM solve the password at boot issue?

Haven’t much experience in the area, so any other suggestions / methods I can try out?

finder – OSX – Not enough disk space to copy file

I was able to copy over the file by using the terminal. If you hit command + space and search for terminal, you will open the terminal app. There you can type ls /Volumes to list the connect devices. For me this was CRP DISABLD. Then cd into the volume cd /Volumes/CRP DISABLD (use a backslash to escape any spaces). You can use tab to complete the name of the Volume if you start typing the beginning of it. Then use mv or cp to copy the file over: mv ~/Downloads/STRAGE_ISP_V205.bin . (the . means the directory you’re currently in). In my case all the commands were:

➜  ~ ls /Volumes
➜  ~ cd /Volumes/CRP DISABLD
➜  CRP DISABLD mv ~/Downloads/STRAFE_ISP_V205.bin .
mv: ./STRAFE_ISP_V205 (1).bin: unable to move extended attributes and ACL from /Users/monroe/Downloads/STRAFE_ISP_V205 (1).bin: No space left on device

After moving the file over, mv showed the warning that it was unable to copy over the extended attributes and ACL from the original file. I believe this is what Finder was also trying to do and why the copy failed when using Finder

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Allow boot from external drive in Recovery mode after the disk is erased

I have erased my Macbook Pro disk. The network install method failed. So I want to reinstall from USB installer. But I don’t have admin account since the whole disk is erased. I need:

  1. create admin account in recovery mode
  2. Or change the setting to allow boot from external drive

The disk is erased, so there is no way I can go to the normal mode or single user mode.

Thanks!

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Recover MYSQL database (InnoDB) on Ubuntu 20.04 after Full Disk Error

I am running a server at home that is fetching data with python and putting it into a local database (Mysql with InnoDB). While the database is 100GB large, I was not aware that the /var/lib.mysql/binlog.00**** files were taking up close to 300GB. This caused my disk to get full two days ago, which I found out today caused a crash (ironically I found this today planning to implement a backup cron).

The traceback (Python):

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "v3_data_updater_direct.py", line 309, in insert_sql_into_db_thread
    conn.cursor.execute(statement, args)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/cursors.py", line 206, in execute
    res = self._query(query)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/cursors.py", line 319, in _query
    db.query(q)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/connections.py", line 259, in query
    _mysql.connection.query(self, query)
MySQLdb._exceptions.OperationalError: (1114, "The table 'v3_fact_values_historic' is full")


Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "v3_data_updater_direct.py", line 413, in main
    db_conn.cursor.execute("INSERT INTO v3_log_data_symbols_found (lssf_guid, lssf_timestamp, lssf_symbol, lssf_status) VALUES (%s, %s, %s, %s)",
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Dataenv_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/cursors.py", line 206, in execute
    res = self._query(query)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/cursors.py", line 319, in _query
    db.query(q)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/connections.py", line 259, in query
    _mysql.connection.query(self, query)
MySQLdb._exceptions.InternalError: (3, "Error writing file '/tmp/MLfd=38' (OS errno 28 - No space left on device)")

During handling of the above exception, another exception occurred:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/fetchers/working_scripts/utils.py", line 130, in __exit__
    self.log_end(exc_type, exc_val, exc_tb)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/fetchers/working_scripts/utils.py", line 104, in log_end
    self.connection.commit()
MySQLdb._exceptions.OperationalError: (1598, "Binary logging not possible. Message: An error occurred during flush stage of the commit. 'binlog_error_action' is set to 'ABORT_SERVER'. Hence aborting the server.")
Could not log end!
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "v3_data_updater_direct.py", line 426, in <module>
    main(hist)
  File "v3_data_updater_direct.py", line 413, in main
    db_conn.cursor.execute("INSERT INTO v3_log_data_symbols_found (lssf_guid, lssf_timestamp, lssf_symbol, lssf_status) VALUES (%s, %s, %s, %s)",
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/cursors.py", line 206, in execute
    res = self._query(query)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/cursors.py", line 319, in _query
    db.query(q)
  File "/home/torben/Projects/Data/env_data_auto/lib/python3.8/site-packages/MySQLdb/connections.py", line 259, in query
    _mysql.connection.query(self, query)
MySQLdb._exceptions.InternalError: (3, "Error writing file '/tmp/MLfd=38' (OS errno 28 - No space left on device)")

I have freed up some disk space from the apache server, but still cannot start mysql with sudo service mysql start due to

Job for mysql.service failed because the control process exited with error code.
See "systemctl status mysql.service" and "journalctl -xe" for details.

systemctl status mysql.service:

● mysql.service - MySQL Community Server
     Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/mysql.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Sun 2020-11-08 11:40:20 UTC; 44s ago
    Process: 3895 ExecStartPre=/usr/share/mysql/mysql-systemd-start pre (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
    Process: 3903 ExecStart=/usr/sbin/mysqld (code=exited, status=2)
   Main PID: 3903 (code=exited, status=2)
     Status: "Server startup in progress"

Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Scheduled restart job, restart counter is at 5.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): Stopped MySQL Community Server.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Start request repeated too quickly.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Failed with result 'exit-code'.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): Failed to start MySQL Community Server.

journalctl -xe:

-- The job identifier is 5668 and the job result is done.
Nov 08 11:40:19 torbenserver02 systemd(1): Starting MySQL Community Server...
-- Subject: A start job for unit mysql.service has begun execution
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- A start job for unit mysql.service has begun execution.
--
-- The job identifier is 5668.
Nov 08 11:40:19 torbenserver02 audit(3902): AVC apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="/proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id" pid=3902 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=0 ouid=0
Nov 08 11:40:19 torbenserver02 audit(3902): AVC apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="/proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id" pid=3902 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=0 ouid=0
Nov 08 11:40:19 torbenserver02 audit(3902): AVC apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="/proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id" pid=3902 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=0 ouid=0
Nov 08 11:40:19 torbenserver02 audit(3902): AVC apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="/proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id" pid=3902 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=0 ouid=0
Nov 08 11:40:19 torbenserver02 audit(3902): AVC apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="/proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id" pid=3902 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=0 ouid=0
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 audit(3903): AVC apparmor="DENIED" operation="open" profile="/usr/sbin/mysqld" name="/proc/3903/task/3904/mem" pid=3903 comm="mysqld" requested_mask="r" denied_mask="r" fsuid=112 ouid=112
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Main process exited, code=exited, status=2/INVALIDARGUMENT
-- Subject: Unit process exited
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- An ExecStart= process belonging to unit mysql.service has exited.
--
-- The process' exit code is 'exited' and its exit status is 2.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Failed with result 'exit-code'.
-- Subject: Unit failed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- The unit mysql.service has entered the 'failed' state with result 'exit-code'.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): Failed to start MySQL Community Server.
-- Subject: A start job for unit mysql.service has failed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- A start job for unit mysql.service has finished with a failure.
--
-- The job identifier is 5668 and the job result is failed.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Scheduled restart job, restart counter is at 5.
-- Subject: Automatic restarting of a unit has been scheduled
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- Automatic restarting of the unit mysql.service has been scheduled, as the result for
-- the configured Restart= setting for the unit.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): Stopped MySQL Community Server.
-- Subject: A stop job for unit mysql.service has finished
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- A stop job for unit mysql.service has finished.
--
-- The job identifier is 5746 and the job result is done.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Start request repeated too quickly.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): mysql.service: Failed with result 'exit-code'.
-- Subject: Unit failed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- The unit mysql.service has entered the 'failed' state with result 'exit-code'.
Nov 08 11:40:20 torbenserver02 systemd(1): Failed to start MySQL Community Server.
-- Subject: A start job for unit mysql.service has failed
-- Defined-By: systemd
-- Support: http://www.ubuntu.com/support
--
-- A start job for unit mysql.service has finished with a failure.
--
-- The job identifier is 5746 and the job result is failed.

I have been trying this but still cannot get the server to start with recovery levels up to 3. It says in the Docs going above 3 is potentially going to cause irreversable corruption, so I want to double check at this point.

QUESTION: What are the most prudent steps now to recover the tables? The tables written while the disk was getting full are not very important, since they are cleared and updated every day anyways. The older dimension tables are what’s really important. They have not been written for at least two weeks.