operating systems – Enjoy the concept of reading files from terminals

I start in the Operating Systems module and this question really caught me off guard. These questions have no solution and I do not know what they are used for in the module.

(a) On Windows, start a shell from the command line, for example. cmd. Assuming you are in a directory with certain types of standard document files, for example. .doc, .pdf, .ppt, etc. Just try typing the name of the file itself.

To elaborate, this question assumes that there is a PDF file, for example. U5-UnixProcess.pdf (any PDF file will do), in the same directory and you have a PDF reader. The following example shows how to start a process from a document:
c:> U5-UnixProcess.pdf

What happens? Which program is running? Is the PDF file being run?

(b) Explain what is the reason for such a feature in Windows.

(c) How come Windows knows what to do with the file? (Hint: use the right mouse button).

(d) Unix has a related feature. Read the execve manpage and explain the feature and how you can use it.

Here are my answers based on my understanding. I've tried to look for answers, but there do not seem to be any sources explaining such delicate issues.

Replies

a)
When we type the file name, the command-line shell looks for the file name in the current directory. If it is not found, it will look for the directories listed in the PATH environment variable. Once the file found, it will search the file extension to find out which application handles the file type, which would be the PDF reader if the file extension is .pdf. After that, the application will start as a new process and pass on the file name to it.

Throughout this process, an application capable of handling the file is running and not the file itself.

b)
The command-line shell allows users to access more commands than those provided by their graphical user interface, such as viewing hidden files.

c)
The Windows command line shell is essentially a command line interpreter. This interpreter reads the user's entries and looks for the file in the current directory, identifies its reader with the help of the file extension and calls the reader to read the file.

re)
I mostly copy a segment of TutorialsPoint for this one. I do not really understand the application of "how to use" here.

execve () is a system call that turns the calling process into a new process, and is the signature of int execve (const char * path, char * const argv[], char * const envp[])

execve () runs the program pointed to by path. path must be either a binary executable or a script starting with a line of the form "#! interpreter [arg]In the latter case, the interpreter must be a valid path for an executable that is not itself a script, which will be called as an interpreter [arg] file name.
argv is an array of argument strings passed to the new program. envp is an array of strings, typically of the form key = value, that are passed as environment to the new program. Argv and envp must both be terminated with a null pointer. The argument vector and the environment are accessible to the main function of the called program, when it is defined as follows: main int (int argc, char * argv[], char * envp[]).

Can anyone strengthen my understanding of these topics and maybe point me to sources I can read on?

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By developing an application with freelancers, you will probably avoid signing huge contracts, additional agreements, invoices, and many other documents, but on the other hand, it takes less responsibility and leaves more room for delays and problems with quality.

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• Disadvantages of working with companies that create mobile apps:
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It does not matter if you spend more money and manage more print, most app development organizations suspect that everything is fine and that there is enough certainty. Most of the time, offices use a wide range of experts to cover the entire cycle of improvement and allow board administrations to sort correspondence and ensure correctness and transparency. transactions.

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5th dnd – How can I help lower level players to enjoy a difficult dungeon?

In your scenario, when players avoid fighting whenever possible, it is the DM's responsibility to ensure that success is perceived as such. There may be a mismatch between the types of players, the players wanting to avoid the fight and you wanting to create a fight, but that may mean that another style of DMing game has to be used so that everyone gets the best party of the party.

Assuming that you want to adapt the game to make it more rewarding for your players, here are some remarks:

  • The modules are designed to be fluid, to allow the DM to change as needed. Maybe there was not a secret entry there, until your players started looking for one. Maybe there was no trap in the ground until the Thief started looking for traps all the time. Meet the expectations of your players by creating what they are looking for. In turn, they will create the world for you while you simply give people what they want.

  • Experience and other benefits can be achieved through different methods other than combat, but it is up to the DM to decide the best method. Some DMs use a session-level schema, in which the number of sessions you must follow to access the higher level is equal to your current level (so you will need to go from 5 sessions to level 5 to 6). Other times, just finish a particular sequence in the module to get a level (usually indicated in the module itself when this happens). Other DM reward EXP for not killing an obstacle / enemy, but simply pacifying it. Choose the method that best suits the table.

  • Forcing the fight is within your reach (via ambushes, traps, jail time, etc.), but make sure the game is designed for the players to have fun. There are not many undead in Lost Mines of Phandelver, but if the players decided to form a group of Holy Paladins and Clerics, I would like them to stand out and feel rewarded for their decisions. , so that I can trade some generic enemies against generic undead. Remember to have enemies suited to the player's usual interactions or to provide clues as to how the player's expertise can handle these scenarios.


Acquire experience

To be so late in the module, the well the solutions are limited, so it is important to try to create good habits so that this problem does not arise in the future.

To avoid any future problems with the module and subsequent events, the focus should be on immediate leveling of the players rather than constantly trying to reduce the game.

With the style of play of your players, there are two methods that I would recommend you to raise their level to the appropriate threshold:

Level them immediatelyindicating that you have decided to change the way in which the experience has been rewarded in your campaign and that their current experience values ​​are adjusted according to these changes and that they will remain at that rate at the future (by placing them according to the method of experience that you deem appropriate). If you want to avoid just distributing free levels without this seeming right, try to calculate their current experience values ​​by figuring out how you think they should gain experience and doing some of the same. rough calculations by hovering over what players have experienced. If you switch to a reference system, make sure everyone is at the same level as expected. If you now reward EXP for soothing creatures, just skim over the fights they've avoided and roll up their new EXP. Once you've done this, explain to your players what the changes are and how their new levels reflect that.

By making them make a detourWhether it's helping an allied army fend off a band of goblins in raiding or defending a city against monsters. The railroad, like a scalpel, is a tool to use accurately and becomes scary in case of excessive use. Use this time to use a quest that your players have managed to avoid, by modifying it to fit their current situation, and connect something that actually forces them to participate, that it 's safe. Acts from an important NPC asking for a favor or item they need for their mission. .


Whichever solution is chosen, make sure the players are recognized for what they are trying to get out of the game and try to adapt the game to that, even if it means that the enemies are more easily handled or that they're thwarted by hidden objects in the dungeon that players can find.

Because leveling them immediately gives your players an immediate sense of reward for their hard work and they also hope to be rewarded for their style of play on both sides of the table, I think this is the best approach for your campaign .

5th dnd – How to help lower level players to enjoy a difficult dungeon?

The main goal of almost every DM is to create a world in which everyone feels invested.

In your scenario, when players avoid fighting whenever possible, it is the DM's responsibility to ensure that success is perceived as such. There may be a mismatch between the types of players, the players wanting to avoid the fight and you wanting to create a fight, but that may mean that another style of DMing game has to be used so that everyone gets the best party of the party.

Assuming that you want to adapt the game to make it more rewarding for your players, here are some remarks:

  • The modules are designed to be fluid, to allow the DM to change as needed. Maybe there was not a secret entry there, until your players started looking for one. Maybe there was no trap in the ground until the Thief started looking for traps all the time. Meet the expectations of your players by creating what they are looking for. In turn, they will create the world for you while you simply give people what they want.

  • Experience and other benefits can be achieved through different methods other than combat, but it is up to the DM to decide the best method. Some DMs use a session-level schema, in which the number of sessions you must follow to access the higher level is equal to your current level (so you will need to go from 5 sessions to level 5 to 6). Other times, just finish a particular sequence in the module to get a level (usually indicated in the module itself when this happens). Other DM reward EXP for not killing an obstacle / enemy, but simply pacifying it. Choose the method that best suits the table.

  • Forcing the fight is within your reach (via ambushes, traps, jail time, etc.), but make sure the game is designed for the players to have fun. There are not many undead in Lost Mines of Phandelver, but if the players decided to form a group of Holy Paladins and Clerics, I would like them to stand out and feel rewarded for their decisions. , so that I can trade some of the generic undead. Remember to have enemies suited to the player's usual interactions or to provide clues as to how the player's expertise can handle these scenarios.

Depending on the situation in which you find yourself, consider immediately raising their level ("Sorry, I decided to reward the EXP differently, here is the EXP after the adjustments"), offering them a detour along the way. Iron to give them the means to upgrade quickly, or simply by reducing the difficulty of enemies in the last section.

Whichever solution is chosen, make sure the players are recognized for what they are trying to get out of the game and try to adapt the game to that, even if it means that the enemies are more easily handled or that they're thwarted by hidden objects in the dungeon that players can find.

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