## Localhost Simply Explained For Dummies

In order to understand what localhost is, let’s breakdown the word “localhost” into its parts “local” and “host”.

“Local” indicates something within your vicinity.

“Host” means somebody who is providing a space to stay there (at least in the present context)

Now let’s combine the two parts of the word localhost back into one. The meaning comes out to be some local person or thing who provides you with some space for any particular purpose.

Now let’s talk about localhost in the context of computer science. Lets’ say you want to create a website. You need some space to place the contents of your website. The content may include text, images, videos, or any other type of file required by your website. Your computer provides this space. In short, “localhost” means “your personal computer” or “any other computer present within your vicinity,” which gives you the space for the contents of your website. Using the host analogy, localhost means your computer is hosting your website (or anyone else’s site for that matter. Hosting providers do this regularly using computers called servers). In this example, we are using a website and its contents as an example. Localhost (your computer) can be used to store aka host any software, e.g., a mobile app, a desktop app, a web app, etc.

## number theory – When is \$b^2 – {b-1}_2\$ with odd \$b\$ a perfect power of \$2\$? (The bracket-notation explained below)

For the complete extraction of the factor $$p$$ and its powers from a natural number $$m$$
let’s define the notation $${m}_p := { m over p^{nu_p(m)}}$$
While looking at the question of existences of 2-step-cycles in the generalized Collatz-problem for $$mx+1$$ I arrived at the question for which odd $$b$$ the evaluation of $$f(b)$$
$$f(b) = b^2 – {b-1}_2 overset{?}=2^S tag 1$$
is a perfect power $$2^S$$.
I know, that $$b=3$$ and then $$S=3$$ is a solution (the famous $$3^2-1=2^3$$). Generating a list for sequential $$b$$ didn’t suggest any useful pattern so far, so this didn’t help me with a clue.

## Frequently Asked Questions: KVM VPS Explained

As part of our continued “Frequently Asked Questions” Series on Virtualization we’ve published a short starter’s friendly FAQ On KVM based VPS plans. If you’re looking to learn more beyond this article, we’ve got plenty more tutorials and FAQ’s which are worthy of reading.

Question: What is the difference between KVM and OpenVZ VPS?

In short, KVM provides dedicated resources, and allows you to run the VM independently (with its own kernel, and operating system of your choice). OpenVZ is typically more cost-effective, though it comes with limitations of its own nature, such as the inability to run Docker natively and sharing the same kernel as the hypervisor/host node. Recently we’ve highlighted some of the strengths of the OpenVZ and KVM architecture. Additionally, at LowEndBox we ran a poll for the preferred virtualization engine that users prefer, and KVM came far ahead as the winner.

Question: Are KVM VPS instantly activated?

Generally speaking, most KVM VPS providers offer instant activation. If you are in a time-sensitive situation, feel free to check the provider’s website before ordering to see if they advertise instant/automated provisioning.

Question: Why has KVM become such a popular virtualization technology?

Over the past years, KVM has become an increasingly popular choice among both service providers and consumers. This is thanks to its stable virtualization technology which allows a VM to act independently as if it were its own dedicated server. Before KVM, users were typically restricted (by virtualization platforms such as OpenVZ and Virtuozzo) to certain OS’s and certain kernel versions. As KVM based VPS’s run independently, all of those restrictions are effectively removed, giving the consumer more control and power than ever available before within a virtualized environment.

Question: Can I run Windows OS on a KVM VPS?

Yes, technically KVM virtualization platform supports Windows OS (or any OS, really!). Check with your provider before ordering to ensure they support/allow Windows OS to be run on their VPS platform.

Question: Can I run Docker on a KVM VPS?

Yes, Docker is natively supported on a KVM VPS and can be run without having to worry about loading special modules on the host.

Question: What are some KVM VPS Providers?

LowEndBox recently compiled a list of the best and cheapest VPS providers (updated 2020). KVM VPS providers included: RackNerd, VirMach, ExtraVM, HudsonValleyHost, DediPath, LetBox, LosAngelesVPS, and RamNode. See: https://lowendbox.com/best-cheap-vps-hosting-updated-2020/

Question: Can I install my own custom OS if I have an ISO?

Yes, KVM VPS do have the ability to mount your own ISO to install your own operating system. The OS install is typically completed via a VNC or noVNC console. Be sure to contact your hosting provider before ordering to ensure they support the ability to mount custom ISO’s.

Question: What is a KVM VPS?

A KVM VPS is a virtual private server that lives on a physical dedicated server – however the VPS operates as its own server. KVM VPS technology is typically more desirable compared to other technologies such as OpenVZ because KVM virtualization supports the ability to run custom OS, kernels, and more. A KVM VPS is very similar to having a dedicated server – offering tremendous reliability and performance at a fraction of the cost of a dedicated server. Most KVM VPS providers also include console access via VNC/noVNC, providing you with total control over your server’s environment.

Question: Can I upgrade my KVM VPS?

Generally, the answer to this question is yes – the KVM platform is built to be scalable. However, this policy may vary from provider to provider, so check with your VPS provider on upgrade procedures/options before ordering.

### Related posts:

Frequently Asked Questions: Virtual Private Servers Explained

Frequently Asked Questions: Los Angeles VPS

### Jon Biloh

I’m Jon Biloh and I own LowEndBox and LowEndTalk. I’ve spent my nearly 20 year career in IT building companies and now I’m excited to focus on building and enhancing the community at LowEndBox and LowEndTalk.

## What Does .com Mean | All Popular Domain Suffixes Explained

If you are running any website, you surely know how important a domain name and its extension is for your online business brand. But if you are a beginner and want to build your own website with the proper domain name and reliable hosting then this article is equally important for you. Did you know every domain name is based on different elements? In this article, you will learn what is a TLD (Top-Level-Domain), what does .com mean and a list of popular TLDs.

Domain suffix or Top-Level-Domain (also known as domain extension) is the last segment of your domain name located after the last dot. There are more than 1200 TLDs but .com is the most popular extension. Letâs understand the basic knowledge of all popular top domain extensions.

## server – How to decide to use, then how to use an http gofile.me url in an email, explained to a five year old?

I’m terrified of clicking on links in emails, and yet a colleague insists I do.

When I receive an email in my gmail account that contains links of the form http://gofile.me/xxxxx/yyyyyyyyy along with its password, apparently sent from someone I know and expect it from, and who has supplied the password for the link to their NAS right next to it, should I try to overcome my fear of clicking on links in emails and consider clicking on it as at least fairly safe? Should I instead copy it paste it in a new tab?

The idea is that the document is evolving so the link will provide the latest version, but should I insist the colleague email me the document directly?

tl;dr: Should I

1. click url
2. copy/paste url in new tab
3. balk, request document be emailed each time

If possible, can an answer be written in simple language?

Cropped, blanked out screenshot from email I received in my gmail:

## What is a Hybrid Server? Hybrid Dedicated Servers Explained

Throughout the past year, you may have noticed more Hybrid Server offerings being featured here on LowEndBox. While this is a relatively new offering so to speak, the LowEndBox staff are working to get in touch with more hosting providers that offer this product to encourage them to create exclusive LEB deals for our readers to enjoy. However, this still leaves the question that some of our readers may be wondering: What is a Hybrid Server? This article, contributed by the folks at RackNerd.com, explains in detail what a hybrid server is, the benefits of a hybrid server, and some example use cases that a hybrid server might be a great fit for.

A hybrid server is a relatively new type of hosting that combines the power you’d typically expect with a traditional dedicated server, along with the flexibility of cloud computing features. With hybrid servers, you still receive 100% of the allocated resources (fully dedicated resources), yet the price is lower than traditional dedicated servers, plus you take advantage of cloud virtualization features including but not limited to: instant activation, automatic OS reinstallation’s, scale up at any time, control panel with reboot, stop, boot, vnc, rescue, power off, logs and additional features.

Virtualization means separation of resources from a physical system. With a hybrid server, you receive a fraction of a physical host, and leverage the pre-existing physical components of a dedicated server. As you can already start to realize, a hybrid server is based on the concept similar to a VPS but it’s split into larger portions that deliver higher performance and more resources at a lower price (higher value).

Benefits of a Hybrid Server:

• Better Performance, Larger Resources

As hybrid servers consist of dedicated resources, they tend to provide better performance than you’d expect from a regular VPS. Also, most hybrid servers consist of at least 4 GB of RAM and up, with generous amounts of disk storage and bandwidth similar to what you’d expect with a dedicated server. This means that if your website or application is outgrowing a VPS environment, you may want to consider upgrading to a hybrid server hosting solution.

• Great Security and Redundancy

A hybrid server has less tenants on an underlying host node. Generally speaking, you will benefit from more security and accessibility than you would receive from a regular public cloud environment. With a hybrid server, you leverage the provider’s pre-existing infrastructure design as well (for example, in most cases with RAID-10, and high performing disks — whereas with a dedicated server on your own, this would only increase cost). Most hosting providers design their nodes like this naturally in order to provide an excellent service and to make it as lucrative, yet as cost-competitive as possible.

• Like a Dedicated Server, Without The Cost

A hybrid server acts like a dedicated server (with its own dedicated CPU, memory, storage allocations) except at a lower cost as you are leveraging pre-existing physical components of an already-deployed host server within a datacenter.

A hybrid server provides more scalability than you would expect with a regular dedicated server. This is thanks to its virtualized nature – it allows for cloud-like features such as migrations between different physical host nodes, server resource allocation changes, and more on the fly.

Closing Thoughts

It’s easy to see why a hybrid server is an excellent choice for hosting websites, gameservers, CMS’s, eCommerce sites, databases, file storage, and more. It’s also useful for development use purposes, as the cloud-like (virtualization) features allow for you to re-install the server’s operating system at any time — whereas with a standard dedicated server, it would be a more manual and time-consuming task to reinstall the server by hand.

Looking for a Hybrid Server? Check out past offers on Low End Box that featured Hybrid Servers or RackNerd, who contributed this informative article/guide to our community provides this type of new hosting service.

### Jon Biloh

I’m Jon Biloh and I own LowEndBox and LowEndTalk. I’ve spent my nearly 20 year career in IT building companies and now I’m excited to focus on building and enhancing the community at LowEndBox and LowEndTalk.

## What is Bandwidth? Bandwidth vs. Transfer Explained

This article was contributed by Dustin B. Cisneros of RackNerd. If you are looking for a VPS or web hosting service – be sure to check out RackNerd!

For those who are new to the LowEndBox website community – welcome! LowEndBox is a website that was founded with the mission to help people find cheap hosting services, in addition to tutorials, news, and more related to the hosting industry.

While this is a topic that most members of the community may already be greatly familiar with – for our newer users, or those who are just starting to venture into the hosting/VPS scene, you may be asking yourself, what is bandwidth? This term is typically listed after the storage space when you’re looking at potential hosting plans, but what does bandwidth really mean?

Simply put:

Bandwidth is the amount of data a server can deliver to its users simultaneously. The TRANSFER limit (amount of bandwidth you can use), for most hosting providers, is usually reset on a monthly basis.

To provide you with an illustration with a real-world example – picture a highly congested freeway that has more cars than it has road space (freeway lanes) available. This results in a saturated freeway (and as such, causing slow-downs and delays for people to reach their destination). The same thing goes in the world of web hosting servers — if your server only has a 100Mbps bandwidth port for example, but your website/applications demand more bandwidth/speeds than that at a given time, you may face slow-downs on your server/website at times whenever the bandwidth is being maxed out. To help combat this potential issue, choose a web hosting provider who provides a healthy amount of bandwidth port speed (such as 1Gbps and higher).

Transfer vs. Bandwidth

These two terms are very related. Sometimes, to simplify things for end-users from a marketing perspective, some hosting providers will even use the bandwidth to describe transfer. For example, 2000 GB Bandwidth – so don’t get confused!

The proper definition of “bandwidth” is the port speed (internet speed of the server), whereas the proper definition of “transfer” is the amount of data you are able to push in a given period (usually, the meter is reset every month).

The transfer amount is usually described by gigabytes, or by terabytes (1TB = ~1000GB for example).

When purchasing a VPS service, always be sure to check for the bandwidth and transfer amount. For example, is the host providing you with 100Mbps bandwidth port or a 1000Mbps bandwidth port? In 2020 (the time this article is being written), 1Gbps is pretty common and industry standard, so this should be something that you seek for in a VPS server if you are looking for consistent network performance.

How much transfer do I need?

If you are running a Plex media server on your VPS for example and you are streaming a lot of content, you may need a VPS with a high transfer limit.

Whereas if you’re just hosting a few simple websites, or if you are just looking for a server to serve as a development sandbox, a server plan with a lower amount of bandwidth allotment would be perfectly suitable for your needs.

At the end of the day, it all depends on what you are looking to do with your server and the type of content that is going to be served from your server. If in doubt, inquire with your provider as to how much they would charge for additional transfer down the road, should you ever need to upgrade.

How much bandwidth and transfer do you deploy your servers with? Need help determining how much bandwidth/transfer you need? Leave your questions, thoughts, comments or feedback in the comments section below!

### Jon Biloh

I’m Jon Biloh and I own LowEndBox and LowEndTalk. I’ve spent my nearly 20 year career in IT building companies and now I’m excited to focus on building and enhancing the community at LowEndBox and LowEndTalk.

## Frequently Asked Questions: Virtual Private Servers Explained

There are lots of questions about Virtual Private Servers (VPS), from the basics, like what they are and what advantages do they offer to more detailed questions about hypervisors and what underlying technologies are best for each use case.

We’ve recently published a fairly extensive starters guide that aims to answers the most common questions about Virtual Private Servers. So, before you get started shopping for a cheap linux vps , cheap windows vps or cheap dedicated server be sure to check the guide out first.

Also available to help those just getting started is a recently published article that answers frequently asked questions pertaining to virtual private server hosting in Los Angeles, California, which is an informative read.

As always we welcome feedback in the comment section below.

### Related posts:

Frequently Asked Questions: Los Angeles VPS

### Jon Biloh

I’m Jon Biloh and I own LowEndBox and LowEndTalk. I’ve spent my nearly 20 year career in IT building companies and now I’m excited to focus on building and enhancing the community at LowEndBox and LowEndTalk.