graphics – Can a LatticeData image show more than a unit cell?

I have an interactive code for showing the crystallographic in Mathematica.

LatticeData[ Which[Type == "FCC", "FaceCenteredCubic", Type == "BCC", "BodyCenteredCubic", Type == "SC", "SimpleCubic"], "Image"]

However this shows only one unit, which means the planes that don’t fit in the cell won’t be shown. Is there a easy way to show more than one unit cell in the LatticeData image?

graphics – Unintentional chromatic aberration on a lightmap

Some strange rainbow halos (front and left) appear after computation of a lightmap for direct light. The formula is dot * dot2 / ( dist * dist ) * dl->intensity with gamma correction, lightmap is computed as vec3_t and ultimately cropped to 3 bytes. However, brightness of the region in question fit into 255 nicely, and even calculating in byte instead of float beforehand – result in just a subtle “oil painting” effect and does not produce such artifact across entire image. My best guess is how this artifact appear from base change in a floating point math, but I don’t know for sure nor do I understand what exactly is happening.artifact

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Cannot get aspect ration to 1 with simple Graphics

I am learning Mathematica and doing a simple animation project which animates the harmonic motion of a pendulum. For some reason, I cannot get the simplest thing to work — the aspect ratio for my pendulum graph will not go to 1. I have whittled my code down to something extremely simple that illustrates my problem:

Graphics[Line[{{0, 0}, {.5, -.5}}], Axes -> True, PlotRange -> {{-1.1, 1.1}, {-1.1, 0}}, AspectRatio -> 1]

Output of the code above

pdf format – Graphics not correctly produced when saving to PDF in Version 12

12.0.0 for Microsoft Windows (64-bit) (April 6, 2019)

How do I get my graphic to look the same in PDF as it does in a Notebook?

This is what the graphic looks like in the FrontEnd:

enter image description here

This is how the same image appears in a PDF file:

enter image description here

This is the code producing the graphics.

Module({arc, (GothicC)a, (GothicC)b, (GothicC)c, 

(ScriptCapitalC)a, (ScriptCapitalC)b, (ScriptCapitalC)c, (Theta)a
= 2/3 (Pi), (Theta)b = 4/3 (Pi), (Theta)c = 0
, (CapitalTheta), (CapitalDelta)(CapitalTheta)
, (CapitalDelta)(Theta)1 = (Pi), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2 =
(Pi)/3, (GothicCapitalR)}
, (GothicC)a = {0, 0}; (GothicC)b = {1,
0}; (GothicC)c = (GothicC)b/
2 + {0, 1} Sqrt(3)/
2; (GothicCapitalR)((Theta)) := {Cos((Theta)), Sin((Theta))};
, (Theta), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)) := ((GothicC)

  • (GothicCapitalR)(#)) & /@
    Range((Theta), (Theta) + (CapitalDelta)(Theta),
    (CapitalDelta)(CapitalTheta) = {0, (Pi), 4/3 (Pi), 5/3 (Pi)};
    ) := (Theta) + (CapitalDelta)(CapitalTheta)((i));

(ScriptCapitalC)a = {arc((GothicC)a, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)a,
1), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)1),
arc((GothicC)a, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)a,
2), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2),
arc((GothicC)a, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)a,
3), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2),
arc((GothicC)a, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)a,
4), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2)};
(ScriptCapitalC)b = {arc((GothicC)b, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)b,
1), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)1),
arc((GothicC)b, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)b,
2), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2),
arc((GothicC)b, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)b,
3), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2),
arc((GothicC)b, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)b,
4), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2)};
(ScriptCapitalC)c = {arc((GothicC)c, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)c,
1), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)1),
arc((GothicC)c, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)c,
2), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2),
arc((GothicC)c, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)c,
3), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2),
arc((GothicC)c, (CapitalTheta)((Theta)c,
4), (CapitalDelta)(Theta)2)};

Point({(GothicC)a, (GothicC)b, (GothicC)c})
, {Red, Line((ScriptCapitalC)a(1)),
Point((GothicC)a + (GothicCapitalR)((CapitalTheta)((Theta)a,
, {Blue, Line((ScriptCapitalC)a(2))}
, {Green, Line((ScriptCapitalC)a((3)))}
, {Magenta, Line((ScriptCapitalC)a((4)))}
, {Red, Line((ScriptCapitalC)b(1))}
, {Blue, Line((ScriptCapitalC)b(2))}
, {Green, Line((ScriptCapitalC)b((3)))}
, {Magenta, Line((ScriptCapitalC)b((4)))}
, {Red, Line((ScriptCapitalC)c(1))}
, {Blue, Line((ScriptCapitalC)c(2))}
, {Green, Line((ScriptCapitalC)c((3)))}
, {Magenta, Line((ScriptCapitalC)c((4)))}
, {Blue
, Polygon(
Join((ScriptCapitalC)a(1), (ScriptCapitalC)b((
4)), (ScriptCapitalC)c(2)))
, Polygon(
Join((ScriptCapitalC)b(1), (ScriptCapitalC)c((
4)), (ScriptCapitalC)a(2)))
, Polygon(
Join((ScriptCapitalC)c(1), (ScriptCapitalC)a((
4)), (ScriptCapitalC)b(2)))
, Polygon(
Join((ScriptCapitalC)c((3)), (ScriptCapitalC)a((
3)), (ScriptCapitalC)b((3))))

graphics card – After waking GNU/Linux up from suspend display stays turned off

Hello everyone,

I am trying to solve an annoying problem which happened to me, when I migrated one of my boxes (computers:) from Ubuntu to it’s fully FSF compliant equivalent called Trisquel. Both of these two platforms are actually based on Ubuntu distros, however Trisquel is free of all proprietary libraries and other software.

The source of the problem which, I believe, is the result of my migrating to Trisquel, is that Trisquel no longer properly recognizes my graphic hardware, i.e, my graphic board that is recognized as (ATI Radeon HD 4550, ATI Radeon RV710, ATI Radeon HD 4350 by lspci CLI command, as well as by whatever is the default fall back graphical driver, when the hardware is not properly identified during X-initialization process. Which you could see in the /var/log/Xorg.o.log, but which, together with my xorg.conf file, due to some rather dark, unexplained issues StackExchange trolls, hiding behind moderators and “bots”, have, I am prevented to publish here:(

Nevertheless, in this Xorg.o.log file, one can see, that my graphical board should require the open radeon driver to be loaded, which actually starts out to be the case, but is in the then further down the initialization process rejected and replaced with a default graphic driver, which I believe is the true culprit eventually even causing the suspend to exhibit its fatal flaw, of not waking up the display monitor. I believe that either or both of the two hardware pieces (my graphic board and/or the display monitor) are not EDID (Extended Display Identification Data compliant, which is actually accounted for in Ubuntu’s close radeon driver, but not in GNU/Linux FSF variant which uses open radeon graphic driver.

I was hoping, that reverting back to the good old Xorg.conf configuration file would solve the problem. Unfortunately, I was not able to accomplish that. Indeed I’ve tried to fix both approaches, the contemporary auto config, which utilizes external utilities, like xrandr, gtf, cvt, xvattr, etc, as well as the manual Xorg.conf configuration, that in the distant past would almost always work, providing, you supplied the correct hardware specifications in the configuration sections for your hardware.

And finally, regardless of whether we are able to solve “Xorg/suspend/monitor wake-up” problem, I would like to be able, indeed with some certainty, to identify what really the problem is. Primarily I wish to know it the problem is related to a graphic card, or a driver, and whether it would be possible to bypass the troubles, by replacing a graphic board with a different one. And last but not list, how can one learn which graphic cards are supported. As I have already pointed out, the list of supported hardware found in the Xorg.0.log file, can not be considered a reliable source!

Short of posting my xorg related files, lets look at how does my “Xorg/suspend” problem on Trisquel manifests itself?


When I the CPU (computer) exits the suspend state it fails to turn on the monitor. After searching the Internet for posts describing similar problems, some suggested the problem might be in some settings in GRUB. As suggested, I tweaked the line GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX=”” as shown undeer 1.1.1, and 1.1.2 by doing the following:

        $> sudo vi /etc/default/grub
        #> sudo uodate-grub


 GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="" >>>> GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="nouveau.modest=0"

Run sudo uodate-grub and tested if waking up the computer from suspend also wakes up the display monitor.

It does not!

Changing this line to


      GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="" >>>> GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="amdgpu.modest=0

Also does not have any effect!


Next, I checked xrandr output which consistently, always, displayed the same output. In particular I could never really got rid of the following xrandr: Failed to get size of gamma for output default message:

    $> xrandr
    xrandr: Failed to get size of gamma for output default
    Screen 0: minimum 1600 x 1200, current 1600 x 1200,     \s
        maximum 1600 x 1200
    default connected primary 1600x1200+0+0 0mm x 0mm
       1600x1200     77.00* 


Changing –gamma value to 1.0 seems to fail with the resulting gamma value 0, as shown here:

        $> xrandr --output default --gamma 1.0:1.0:1.0
        xrandr: Gamma size is 0.


I could never get System -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Display to reflect any changes I make by running xrandr‘s –newmode, –addmode, though a subsequent query by running xrandr without any arguments (see 1.4.4) does show the new added mode:


        $> gtf 1920 1200 59.95
        # 1920x1200 @ 59.95 Hz (GTF) hsync: 74.46 kHz; pclk: 192.99 MHz
        Modeline "1920x1200_59.95"                                  \s
                       192.99   1920 2048 2256 2592                 \s
                                1200 1201 1204 1242  -HSync +Vsync


        $> xrandr --newmode "1920x1200_60.00"                       \s
                       193.25   1920 2056 2256 2592                 \s
                                1200 1203 1209 1245  -hsync +vsync


        $> xrandr --addmode VGA1 1920x1200_60.00


        $> xrandr
        xrandr: Failed to get size of gamma for output default
        Screen 0: minimum 1600 x 1200,                              \s
                       current 1600 x 1200,  maximum 1600 x 1200
        default connected primary 1600x1200+0+0 0mm x 0mm
         1600x1200     77.00* 
         1920x1200_60.00 (0x2bf) 193.250MHz -HSync +VSync
         h: width  1920 start 2056 end 2256 total 2592 skew 0 clock 74.56KHz
         v: height 1200 start 1203 end 1209 total 1245        clock 59.88Hz

None of the above has no effect, whatsoever, on the waking up of the display monitor when the computer wakes up from the suspend state.


I created ~/.xprofile and added the following to it:

    xrandr --output default --gamma 1.0:1.0:1.0
    xrandr --newmode "1920x1200_60.00" 193.25                   \s
                            1920 2056 2256 2592                 \s
                            1200 1203 1209 1245  -hsync +vsync
This <b>~/.xprofile</b> also had no effect on SUSPEND problem, and <b>Display</b> app from the main <i>Trisquel menu</i> also did mot show the newly added mode!

1.6 Conclusion of manual settings using {{ xrandr )) command

In all of the above attempts, in many different combinations, when selecting System -> Preferences -> Hardware -> Display I was never able to get whichever resolution I managed to set by running xrandr commands. Also note that –gamma setting finally always failed and had an erroneous value 0.

But most importantly, I was never able to wake up my screen when waking up the computer from the suspend state!


2. Falling back to xorg.conf configuration file

This is the part, which corporate culprits hiding between us in the open source source community, are trying to prevent us to discuss in fear we could actually achieve, that their proprietary crap may actually became useless in maintaining their monopolies.


So, first is my xord.conf file. I created a new xorg.conf file (which you can see under (2.2), and copied it in its palace as shown in the folowing code segment:

    $> sudo cp /etc/X11/xorg.conf   /etc/X11/xorg.conf.$(date +%y%m%d-%H%M)
    $> sudo cp xorg.conf-NN         /etc/X11/xorg.conf


Due to the above sabotage, I am prevented to share with you my xorg.conf file.


And the following should be my partial /var/log/Xorg.0.log file, which just like the xorg.conf may be dangerous to corporate monopolies, and which effectively they prevented me from showing it to you!

Please note,

ATI Radeon HD 4550, ATI Radeon RV710, ATI Radeon HD 4350

is my graphic card, as identified by

      $> sudo lspci |grep -y VGA
      01:00.0 VGA compatible controller:              \s
              Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. (AMD/ATI)  \s
              RV710 (Radeon HD 4350/4550)

as well as printed in the Xorg.0.log file. Also note how the header in the above output becomes the BusID, I created in the Devices section in my xorg.conf file.

        BusID    "PCI:1:0:0"

Needless to say, none of the above fixed the monitor wake up problem.

Any help or suggestions would be greatly appreciated.
Thank you in advance.

graphics – Dashed arrowhead when exporting to PDF

Dashed styling gets erroneously applied to the head of an Arrow when exported to PDF in version 12.1-12.2 on Mac — it looks fine on the screen and when exported to PNG (also fine for versions 10.0-12.0).

testfig = Graphics({Blue, Dashing(.03), Thickness(0.008), Arrow({{0, 0}, {0, 1}})})
Export(StringJoin("testfig.png"), testfig, "PNG", ImageResolution -> 300);
Export(StringJoin("testfig.pdf"), testfig, "PDF");

enter image description here

enter image description here

Bug? Workaround?

Possibly related (although the fix doesn’t work)

graphics – Could someone explain how I can use parameters to shorten my code in python

I’m new to coding so I’m unsure on how to shorten this code on python
I’m using to create diagonal squares
Is there a way for me to shorten this code using parameters?


def diSquares():

    win = GraphWin('Coursework', 500, 500)

    dsquares = Rectangle(Point(0,400),Point(100,500))

    dsquares = Rectangle(Point(100,300),Point(200,400))

    dsquares = Rectangle(Point(200,200),Point(300,300))

    dsquares = Rectangle(Point(300,100),Point(400,200))

    dsquares = Rectangle(Point(400,0),Point(500,100))

Intel Graphics Driver (x64) | Nulled Scripts Download

File size: 423 MB

Installing this Intel generic graphics driver will overwrite your Computer Manufacturer (OEM) customized driver.​

OEM drivers are handpicked and include customized features and solutions to platform-specific issues. The generic Intel driver provides users the latest and greatest feature enhancements and bug fixes that OEMs may not have customized yet to address platform-specific needs. Users can check for matching OEM versions at OEM websites.
Any graphics issues found using Intel generic graphics drivers should be reported directly to Intel. Corporate customers should always use OEM drivers and report all issues through the vendor they purchased the platforms and support through.

This driver is WDDM 2.7 compliant and ready for the Windows 10 May 2020 Update. It introduces support for Dolby Vision and the new DirectX* 12 Shader Model 6.5 compiler on 7th Generation Intel Core processors or higher (Intel HD Graphics 610 or higher).

Gears Tactics*, XCOM: Chimera Squad*, and Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 Campaign Remastered* verified playable on Intel Iris Plus graphics or better.

Unlocked drivers: We heard how much our users want the freedom to upgrade their systems to our regularly released generic graphics drivers and enable our latest game enhancements, feature updates, and fixes. As of this release, Intel Graphics DCH drivers are now unlocked to upgrade freely between Computer Manufacturer (OEM) drivers and the Intel generic graphics drivers on Center. Simply use the EXE and enjoy the update on your 6th Generation Intel Processor platform or higher, and don’t worry about your OEM customizations, they remain intact with each upgrade and the OEMs can maintain customizations separately via Microsoft* Windows Update. See the Release Notes section *2 for important information about this update.

* Reports of OEM errors are still occurring during installation. The majority, if not all of these, are due to the current driver on the system is non-DCH. This update will only install over OEM DCH drivers. Support is detailed in the Release Notes. If this occurs, you can follow these instructions to update the driver:

WARNING: This will remove any OEM customizations. If the OEM does not have a DCH driver available, it’s likely no customizations will be reinstalled by Windows Update after you upgrade to this driver. If you experience any issues such as flickering, BSOD, TDR, etc, please reinstall the latest OEM driver.

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – Fall Creators Update (1709)(RS3)

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – April 2018 Update (1803)(RS4)

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – October 2018 Update (1809)(RS5)

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – May 2019 Update (1903)(19H1)

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – November 2019 Update (1909)(19H2)

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – May 2020 Update (2004)(20H1)

Microsoft Windows 10-64 – October 2020 Update (20H2)


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