linux – Unable to properly switch between the AMD integrated and Nvidia dedicated graphics in Ubuntu 20.04LTS

I have recently tried installing Ubuntu 20.04LTS on my ASUS Laptop and i am not able to switch between the AMD iGPU and Nvidia graphic card. My laptop specs are as follows:

inxi -GxxSMC System: Host: anshul-TUF-Gaming-FA506IH-FA506IH Kernel: 5.4.0-54-generic x86_64 bits: 64 compiler: gcc v: 9.3.0 Desktop: Gnome 3.36.4 wm: gnome-shell dm: GDM3 Distro: Ubuntu 20.04.1 LTS (Focal Fossa) Machine: Type: Laptop System: ASUSTeK product: TUF Gaming FA506IH_FA506IH v: 1.0 serial: <superuser/root required> Mobo: ASUSTeK model: FA506IH v: 1.0 serial: <superuser/root required> UEFI: American Megatrends v: FA506IH.311 date: 09/11/2020 CPU: Topology: 6-Core model: AMD Ryzen 5 4600H with Radeon Graphics bits: 64 type: MT MCP arch: Zen rev: 1 L2 cache: 3072 KiB flags: avx avx2 lm nx pae sse sse2 sse3 sse4_1 sse4_2 sse4a ssse3 svm bogomips: 71863 Speed: 1392 MHz min/max: 1400/3000 MHz Core speeds (MHz): 1: 1398 2: 1397 3: 1397 4: 1397 5: 1389 6: 1397 7: 1398 8: 1396 9: 1397 10: 1397 11: 1397 12: 1397 Graphics: Device-1: NVIDIA vendor: ASUSTeK driver: nvidia v: 455.38 bus ID: 01:00.0 chip ID: 10de:1f99 Device-2: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD/ATI) Renoir vendor: ASUSTeK driver: amdgpu v: bus ID: 05:00.0 chip ID: 1002:1636 Display: x11 server: X.Org 1.20.8 driver: amdgpu,ati,nvidia unloaded: fbdev,modesetting,nouveau,vesa compositor: gnome-shell resolution: 1920x1080~144Hz OpenGL: renderer: AMD RENOIR (DRM 3.37.0 5.4.0-54-generic LLVM 10.0.0) v: 4.6 Mesa 20.0.5 direct render: Yes

The problem is that i am unable to switch to Nvidia graphic card.

The drivers for the same are installed, this is the output of:


| NVIDIA-SMI 455.38 Driver Version: 455.38 CUDA Version: 11.1 |
| GPU Name Persistence-M| Bus-Id Disp.A | Volatile Uncorr. ECC |
| Fan Temp Perf Pwr:Usage/Cap| Memory-Usage | GPU-Util Compute M. |
| | | MIG M. |
| 0 GeForce GTX 1650 Off | 00000000:01:00.0 Off | N/A |
| N/A 37C P8 3W / N/A | 10MiB / 3911MiB | 0% Default |
| | | N/A |

| Processes: |
| GPU GI CI PID Type Process name GPU Memory |
| ID ID Usage |
| 0 N/A N/A 980 G /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg 4MiB |
| 0 N/A N/A 1586 G /usr/lib/xorg/Xorg 4MiB |

In NVIDIA X Server Settings the application shows the following output:


Here the prime-select option is also not available al though prime-select is showing up in the terminal.

I am not able to run anything else on the dedicated. Everything by default is running on the Ryzen 5 integrated graphic that is the AMD Renoir i guess.

I am a student and his is my first time using linux. Please help me solve the issue.

Please let me know if there is anything else required.

Have anybody integrated Klaviyo server APi with Magento2 for custom event?

I want to send custom data for particular klaviyo custom event using server side api.

I have checked the Magento2 Klaviyo_Reclaim module. But there is only reference for java script API.

Can anyone please help me.

dedicated server in the US with integrated GPU

I am looking to rent 4 dedicated servers with an integrated GPU, need multiple locations in the US.

Servers that I had in the past had th… | Read the rest of

python – Rule-based chatbot that can be integrated with multiple platforms [some high-level guidelines would help]

I’ve been assigned a project for my software design module, that is building a chatbot and integrating it to multiple platforms so a user can try and interact with it. AI chatbots are not not considered.

Here are the notes given by my professor:

  • The project should satisfy the topics covered in the Software Design module (indicative content):

    • Agile development

    • Programming: building of modular software components

    • Design Patterns: creational (factory, proxy, singleton), structural (adaptor, decorator).

    • Version Control: use of Git version control, local and remote repositories.

    • In-process communication: building custom modules to encapsulate business logic, test-driven development.

    • Out of process communication: use of existing APIs to add functionality.

    • Usability and testing: unit and integration testing, basic usability testing.

    • Modelling Tools: UML, class diagrams, entity-relationship diagrams.

  • See if you can hook your chat bot up to receive and send messages through Discord, Facebook, Skype, or WhatsApp.

I’ve marked the areas of question from the previous indicative content in bold.

I’ve had some initial thoughts of the steps that the project should take as a starting point. I’ll mention them first then I’ll list down my questions regarding the indicative content that I’ve listed above and how can I map it correctly with the procedure I’ll follow.

Initial thoughts/ plan:

  • Deciding the goal of my chatbot.
  • Writing down some intents and entities that the user might ask about related to the domain of the chatbot.
  • With the use of NLP, iterate over the non-stopping words and extract synonyms for these words (probably remove punctuation/special characters and overly redundant characters as well)
  • Prepare dictionaries/lists of possible responses to different intents and entities.
  • (I have no idea how to do this step) After having a decent result (; terminal), integrate it with Discord, Facebook, Skype and Whatsapp.

Of course I’d really appreciate your thoughts, modifications and expansions to the steps in this plan.

Question: My experience with web development is pretty limited, so I’d understand if this chatbot was GUI or terminal based, but if it’ll be integrated with something like discord or facebook massenger, doesn’t that mean that the service (my chatbot application) should be always responsive (; deployed on some server)? if that’s so, I would appreciate some details on this part. (where to start and how to go on)

I’m a bit novice in all of this and I’m not sure if my own way of thinking is right enough, so I’d seriously appreciate any high-level, context-related example-derived guidelines and explanations on my question, the plan I’ve mentioned and how can I map it with the indicative content.

Thank you.

I’ve edited this post to include only one question.

SharePoint Task List integrated to Group Calender showing tasks to all members

I have added a Task List as a calender overlay to a master calender. The task assigned to my name is shown across all the members name and it is weird. Test Q and Test A are assigned only to my name but it is shown in every row. If anyone could have experience in working on complex projects in calender and task list, please help.

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dnd 5e – Does the +1 AC bonus from the Warforged racial trait Integrated Protection and the Forge Domain cleric’s Blessings of the Forge stack?

The Blessings of the Forge feature requires nonmagical armor to grant a +1 bonus to AC, and although the Warforged racial feature grants +1 to AC, it isn’t armor, nor is it magical. Because the source of this +1 bonus to AC isn’t magical armor, there’s no reason it wouldn’t stack with magical armor whether created via Blessings of the Forge or not.

A good comparison would be the Defense fighting style (available to fighters, paladins and rangers, PHB p. 72, p. 84 and p. 91 respectively):

While you are wearing armor, you gain a +1 bonus to AC.

This, again, isn’t to do with magical armor, it is simply something that you benefit from while wearing armor, even nonmagical armor, so would stack with magical armor, even armor that is only temporarily magical thanks to Blessings of the Forge.

As a counterexample, consider Artificer Infusions

The Artificer class, from Eberron: Rising from the Last War (p. 57), has the class feature Infuse Item, which describes how you apply the class feature to items under “Infusing an Item”:

Whenever you finish a long rest, you can touch a nonmagical object and imbue it with one of your artificer infusions, turning it into a magic item.

If we consider the Artificer Infusion called Enhanced Defense (p. 62), which says:

Item: A suit of armor or a shield

A creature gains a +1 bonus to Armor Class while wearing (armor) or wielding (shield) the infused item. This bonus increases to +2 when you reach 10th level in this class.

So, using the Enhanced Defense infusion on a nonmagical piece of armor turns it into magical armor, and using Blessings of the Forge on nonmagical armor also turns it into magical armor (it says “the object becomes a magic item” in the quote in the question), so these two features cannot be used on the same armor, since as soon as one feature takes effect, the armor becomes magical, and therefore is an invalid target for the other feature, each of which requires nonmagical armor only.

(NB: I’m intentionally restricting myself to a suit of armor here, ignoring shields for the purposes of making this point.)

So, because the Warforged racial ability makes no mention of magical armor (or armor at all, not in that quoted bullet point, at least), there is no reason why this bonus would stack from the bonus granted by Blessings of the Forge.

How can Kneser-Ney Smoothing be integrated into a neural language model?

I found a paper titled Multimodal representation: Kneser-Ney Smoothing/Skip-Gram based neural language model. I am curious about how the Kneser-Ney Smoothing technique can be integrated into a feed-forward neural language model with one linear hidden layer and a softmax activation. What is the purpose of the Kneser-Ney in such a neural network, and how can it be used for learning the conditional probability for the next word?

magento2 – How to make a shipping method that has been integrated with the courier API in my country?

In my country, there is an API for logistics service provider named RajaOngkir, here I have difficulties in making the method, so here I want my Magento to be integrated with the RajaOngkir API. If I buy an extension, I see the price of the extension is very expensive, and the needs of the magento that I’m working on aren’t too complex. I hope there are steps in making a shipping method, and I have difficulty in finding files from the shipping method, even I don’t know where to start.

What if a periodic redistribution of bitcoin had been integrated into the protocol / wallets?

For example, each month, you and all other wallets would pay 20% of their bitcoin equally to everyone else.

There is a technical problem with this, and a social problem:

Technical: How do you decide where the 20% is paid? How can we determine that each real human being is paid and only paid once? If you agree to centralize control of this function, it is not too difficult: everyone simply registers their identity with the central authority, so that the central authority is solely responsible for guarantee that all payments are made accurately.

Of course, this is completely contrary to the conception of bitcoin: there is no such hierarchy or position of authority in the network. Without the central authority, there is an obvious problem: a single human could simply register many different addresses / devices / IP addresses / etc, to earn more than their "fair share" of redistribution **. This is a fundamental problem for decentralized systems, it is not trivial to solve.

Social: It will probably be difficult to convince people to opt for a system in which they could lose up to 20% of their net worth each month. I think you can adjust this tax at the level and frequency you want, but that won't change the situation much.

The function of such a system would depend on the altruistic participation of the wealthy. This is not a stable proposition, we must expect that a rich and rational actor cannot opt ​​for such a system, given the choice.

Would that encourage more transactions and economic activity?

This would encourage you to move your wealth to another store of financial / silver instruments.

These two ideas, bitcoin and wealth redistribution, are inherently incompatible. Bitcoin is fully opt-in, while in order for wealth redistribution to really work, you need a system that does not allow users to opt out.

** Interestingly, bitcoin mining is in itself a solution to this problem: users who want to earn the reward must prove that they have spent energy to secure the network to do so . There is no way to fake energy, and spending more energy does not earn you a disproportionate amount of the reward. Bitcoin mining is a probabilistic solution to this sybil network attack problem: the attacker can no longer simulate being a large number of nodes on the network, he must spend real resources to participate .

Self-signed certificates in an integrated IoT device

I have several IoT devices that will be connected to a cloud-based platform in order to control these devices (IoT node running an SoC arm baremetal).

I would like to know how to configure each IoT node to generate a self-signed certificate and how this element can improve the overall security of the system.

This certificate will only be used when deploying IoT devices and will be used to avoid possible ManInTheMiddle attacks. Is it really useful for this specific case?