dnd 5e – Does the off-hand gauntlet of the Guardian Artificer gain the bonus Intelligence modifier?

D&D 5e does not distinguish between main and off hand.

Nowhere do the rules make a distinction between main hand and off hand.

The Thunder Gauntlets are not light melee weapons.

Now, for the purposes of two weapon fighting, you cannot use the gauntlets to make a bonus action attack, as two weapon fighting requires each weapon to be a light melee weapon:

When you take the Attack action and attack with a light melee weapon that you’re holding in one hand, you can use a bonus action to attack with a different light melee weapon that you’re holding in the other hand. You don’t add your ability modifier to the damage of the bonus attack, unless that modifier is negative.

The gauntlets do not have the light property:

Each of the armor’s gauntlets counts as a simple melee weapon while you aren’t holding anything in it.

They both get the bonus.

The “special weapon” of the Guardian Armorer is:

Each of the armor’s gauntlets

Each gauntlet is itself a weapon, and each gets the bonus from your intelligence modifier to attack and damage rolls.

Each model includes a special weapon. When you attack with that weapon, you can add your Intelligence modifier, instead of Strength or Dexterity, to the attack and damage rolls.

I know it says “weapon”, singular, and the guardian technically gets two, one for each hand.

artificial intelligence – AI Search – State in the toy vacuum problem

I have been reading about AI search, specifically the toy vacuum cleaner problem and I would like to code an example of this but I am finding the description of the state hard to get my head around.

Is the state something you are supposed to hard code in advance in AI search? This seems unlikely due to the possible number of potential states for a larger problem, so I am not sure how I can represent the state in a problem like this, or any other really.

In the vacuum problem the states are ‘dirt left’, ‘dirt right’ and ‘vacuum position’ and an action such as ‘move left’, ‘move right’ or ‘suck’ will leave the problem in a new state but how do you represent these changes?

Would state be an object with boolean properties for the dirt and an int value for the vacuum position of either 0 or 1 depending on which array element it is looking at?

In the context of a map program trying to get to somewhere I do understand the state might be In(New York) but I what I am struggling with is how I would represent something like that in code, or perhaps a maze where the current state might be the x, y coordinate of the square the agent is currently in, again would an object be the right thing to use to model state?

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dnd 5e – Does the intelligence and wisdom, and therefore character of your familiar change in 5E D&D?

Whilst I know that this is mostly up to the DM, but the Find Familiar spell in D&D means that you summon a spirit which take the form of your familiar. You can change form, but they always take on the stats of that form. I presume, however, that you have a relationship with that spirit/familiar which is going to be very strange if their intelligence and wisdom changes. Cats, for example have an animal Intelligence of 3 and Wisdom of 12. Pseudodragons, as can be summoned by Warlocks, have an Intelligence of 12 and Wisdom of 10. The spell says that if you cast the Find Familiar spell when you already have a familiar, it can take on a different form, ergo it is the same spirit. So does it’s character change? In which case, is it going to hate going from an Imp (Int:11) to a Rat (Int:2)?

artificial intelligence – In counterfactual regret minimization, why are additions to regret weighted by reach probability?

I’m reading the algorithm on page 12 of An Introduction to Counterfactual Regret Minimization. On lines 25 and 26, we accumulate new values into $r_i$ and $s_i$:

  • $25.space space r_I(a) ← r_I(a) + pi_{-i} . (v_{sigma I rightarrow a}(a) – v_{sigma}(a))$
  • $26. space space s_I(a) ← s_I(a) + pi_{i} . sigma^t(I, a)$

$r_I(a)$ is the accumulated regret for information set $I$ and action $a$. $s_I(a)$ is the accumulated strategy for information set $I$ and action $a$.

$pi_{i}$ is the probability of reaching this game state for the learning player (for whom we’re updating strategy and regret values in the current CFR iteration). $pi_{-i}$ is the probability of reaching this game state for the other player.

Why do we multiply by $pi_{-i}$ and $pi_{i}$ to accumulate the strategy and regret on lines 25 and 26? Couldn’t we just do this:

  • $25.space space r_I(a) ← r_I(a) + (v_{sigma I rightarrow a}(a) – v_{sigma}(a))$
  • $26. space space s_I(a) ← s_I(a) + sigma^t(I, a)$

It seems to me it doesn’t matter exactly how much we adjust the strategy and regrets in this CFR iteration—so long as we do enough CFR iterations, won’t we end up with good values for $r_I$ and $s_I$ in the end?

artificial intelligence – A very simple allgorithm for a highly efficient? Chess AI

Several years ago I read an PhD thesis about some very complicated versions of chess AI’s, but now I think that it is very simple to implement an highly efficient chess AI as followed:

At each turn the amount of all possible moves is the degree of freedom for this turn, the only thing left to do is to choose a move that will result in a maximum (your degrees of freedome – the opponents degrees of freedome), just some simple combinatorical calculations.

What do you think of the efficiency of this?

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whatsapp – Is there any evidence that (mainly US) intelligence services have especial difficulty reading either Telegram’s or Signal’s encrypted messages?

Preface: the question being asked here is summed up in a single, lone boldfaced sentence at the end. Everything else is caveats and background. How isn’t this question clear and focused?

I imagine like either leaked or otherwise published official memos on efforts and signals intelligence programs to intercept and crack different types of communications either lamenting or chronicling the technical difficulties in doing so and resultant “blind spots”. Or, for example, the spectacular national FBI/Apple controversy in which Apple’s compliance or non-cooperation proved ultimately moot as the FBI payed some Israeli consultancy some insane sum to license their encryption cracking package which was able to break it (so we know that these exploits are not only possible, but actually exist).

WhatsApp obviously employs Signal’s publicly released encryption code, but its own base is not only proprietary and unaudited, but also is the subject of an embarrassingly endless and regular stream of exploits – suffice to say that security is not its main concern.

Further, it contains such an appalling design oversight as to make it suspicious as to whether it is designed intentionally with this objective in that if cloud backup options are not manually disabled, then all of one’s correspondence with all of one’s correspondents, regardless of one’s correspondents’ own settings, is uploaded in plain text to one’s storage provider.

Signal is FOSS, and I suppose fully audited, but distributed (and compiled? Signed?) by Apple or Google, depending on the delivery platform. So they could be tampered with by slipstreaming maliciously modified binaries into the distribution channels if one was targeted by court orders and they were ordered to do so.

But even if the binaries as installed are theoretically (ie, by design) meant to be trusted, like signed by the developers’ own keys, iOS is so opaque that if there were backdoors then I don’t think that anyone would likely even know, especially if they were ordered to target you for malicious/covert surveillance. Presumably the NSA’s army of security researchers also have genuine/innocent/candidly overlooked zero day vulnerabilities (in addition to those submitted by independent individuals for cash bounties) in their catalogs at their disposals, too, in the case of both iOS and Android, so that regardless of how secure either Telegram or Signal themselves are in message transmission security, the decryption keys can still be compromised through vulnerabilities in the underlying operating systems.

Between Signal and Telegram, I suppose that last I looked into the matter, both are open source, but only Signal’s codebase was audited. There are concerns about Signal’s substantial funding by the American foreign policy establishment, and Telegram’s Russian origin is perceived in contrast as a more independent provenance, yet nobody ever points out that the Russian backers of the app happen to be virtually as pro-American aligned as Russians these days get.

Telegram had a controversial gung-ho attitude about “rolling its own” crypto functions which many had felt was suspicious. They claimed that it was due to performance concerns with Moxie Marlinspike’s librarified Axolotl, which, if honest, precludes any malicious intent to covertly compromise the app’s security. It is more robust with a more varied feature set, and it does seem more innovative as well as configurable than Signal. However, people complained that its crypto components were not audited like Signal’s were, yet the Telegram developers seemed very confident and proud in their code’s integrity, and, as I recall, they said that audits to validate their confidence would come in time. This was years back now. But there was still a further issue that while Telegram was associated with end to end security, by default the chats were actually not encrypted, very arguably coaxing users into a false sense of security. Perhaps the audit has now been done, and perhaps chats are now end-to end secured by default.

Regardless of speculations as to the implications of all of these factors on actual security, what evidence do we have of the state’s abilities in actual practice to intercept and read messages in all of these apps, comparatively and respectively? For example, while we know that it is of course technically possible for even non-smartphones to be remotely activated as listening devices, through the account in Murder in Samarkand, we know some contexts and the conditions and levels of ease or frustration with which it is actually done.

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