What are the different kinds of Lightning routing nodes?

Alex Bosworth discusses different kinds of routing nodes he has observed on the network in this presentation at a Lightning Hack Day in March 2021. He classifies them as follows:

  • Ping Pong Routing Node (Bi-Directional Payments)
  • Liquidity Battery Routing Node (Slow Ping Pong Payments)
  • Inbound Sourcing Routing Node (Provide Liquidity to Drains)
  • Liquidity Trader Routing Node (Predict the Future, Provide Reliability)
  • Last Mile Routing Node (Connect Users to the Network)

A ping pong routing node stays balanced due to routing regular bidirectional payments and only requires operational costs. It avoids the fees required to rebalance channels. In reality, these are rare as there are at least delays between the bidirectional payments and hence periods where channels aren’t balanced.

A liquidity battery routing node is more common as it routes bidirectional payments but encounters time delays and periods where channels aren’t balanced. It needs sufficient capital to withstand these periods and avoid being drained. Due to the higher capital requirements they potentially have the opportunity to charge higher fees than ping pong routing nodes. These routing nodes also require monitoring of onchain fees to determine when it is affordable to use the chain to rebalance their channels.

An inbound sourcing routing node seeks opportunities to consistently provide liquidity to drains (ie exhausting their inbound capacity with regularity). Capital is only flowing in one direction and this routing node has to manage that and actively rebalance. However, this routing node does get to identify stable routing opportunities with medium fees where there is demand to route to the drains (e.g. merchants) and potentially buy channel capacity to serve periods of increased demand.

A liquidity trader routing node is the most opportunistic of routing nodes as it moves around the network opening channels or buying channel capacity in the short term to take advantage of information that isn’t publicly available. It chases high routing fees and hence is information intensive as well as channel management intensive. If its information isn’t accurate it risks making higher losses as the costs of channel opening and purchasing liquidity mount up.

A last mile routing node actively tries to connect end users to the Lightning Network rather than being one of the central nodes in the route. These routing nodes need to understand and monitor what the end users’ needs are because otherwise they risk their capital being stuck in a channel that isn’t being regularly utilized (i.e. no routing fees). It is also critical (even more so than for other routing nodes) that these routing nodes are online 24/7 as they may be the end users’ only connection to the rest of the network.

(Being an effective routing node and generating profits from being a routing node is challenging and especially when starting out one should see it as experimentation rather than an investment with reliable returns. Do not experiment with more funds than you can afford to lose.)

list manipulation – Restrict kinds of heads when dealing with level concept

In(1)  Map((# + 7) &, {a, 3 b, {c, d}, e}, {2})
Out(1)  {a, 10 (7 + b), {7 + c, 7 + d}, e}

But I want feature like ListMap :

In(2)  ListMap((# + 7) &, {a, 3 b, {c, d}, e}, {2})
Out(2)  {a, 3b, {7 + c, 7 + d}, e}

(* +7 to every level 2 object. But when determining level, ignore all head except List. *)

The concept of level is very closely related to ‘Head’, more precisely, ‘all kinds of Heads’.
Can we restrict kinds of heads temporarily?

For example, can we do somethig like

‘of all heads, only List is regarded as an effective head, when dealing with level concept, only for this time’.

There are many built-in symbols containing ‘level’ as their arguments. Map,Outer,Apply,…Ideally I hope there exist an original method which works for all such built-in symbols.

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Type G film camera – can i use new kinds?

I just bought a Kohka 418 Super 8 Camera, but I have a important doubt that I should have thought before.

In the place that it says the ASA/ISO number that the camera uses, it also says “TYPE G FILM”.

My question is: can i use new kind of super 8 films like the new Ektachrome 100D or I can only use the old Ektachrome 160 Type G film?


publishing – I want to use the kinds of monsters that appear in tabletop RPGs for commercial use in writing, how can I tell public-domain?

Find them in other public domain works.

Gary Gygax faced the same problem when TSR was threatened with a lawsuit over creatures appearing in the works of Tolkien. His solution was to prove that these creatures appeared in much older, out-of-copyright works, including ancient mythology and medieval bestiaries.

Gygax was successful at convincing the company to drop the lawsuit, even though many of the creatures in D&D more closely resemble their Tolkien counterparts than the original mythic inspiration.

However, copyright law is potentially much more complex than that. For example, the estate of Arthur Conan Doyle argued, in a recent case against Netflix, that while the character of Sherlock Holmes is out of copyright, certain personality traits only appearing in later, in-copyright Sherlock Holmes works (such as displaying empathy) are still under copyright.

In theory, Wizards of the Coast could sue over similarities to their specific versions of individual monsters. For example, they can’t own copyright on “troll”, but could arguably claim copyright on a troll who regenerates injuries unless burned with fire.

In practice, Wizards of the Coast is generally lenient with the use of monsters inspired by earlier works, even where D&D’s characterization of those is original.

A good example of this is the lich. Earlier fantasy works used “lich” (an archaic word for a body) to refer to an undead body found in a tomb, but D&D’s specific conception of the lich as a magic user who keeps their soul in a phylactery is largely original. This conception of the lich has in turn been used by other works such as World of Warcraft, and as far as I’m aware, Wizards has never tried to sue over it.

Wizards is stricter regarding certain creatures which it considers Product Identity; i.e. original creations owned by the company. These include the beholder, gauth, carrion crawler, displacer beast, githyanki, githzerai, kuo-toa, mind flayer, slaad, umber hulk, and yuan-ti, all of which appeared in the D&D v.3.5 Monster Manual but were omitted from the SRD on copyright grounds. Even then, some video games have gotten away with using these creatures; the mind flayer in particular appeared in Demon’s Souls and the Final Fantasy series. Still, I wouldn’t recommend using these creatures in a game, as WotC have explicitly declared that they own copyright on them, which suggests they reserve the right to enforce that copyright.

publishing – If I want to use the kinds of monsters that appear in tabletop RPGs for commercial use in writing, how can I tell what is public-domain?

There is no “quick ‘n easy” way to do this, but I’d suggest you do so some background checking beforehand.

For instance with Drow:

The origins of the “Drow” preceed Dungeons & Dragons, probably by hundreds of years. Not only do we have the “Trow” of the Scottish Orkney Isle in folklore, but also the “Drow” of Shetland Isle. (…) Webster’s Unabridged Dictionary (1970) states that: “Drow, n., (scot.) A tiny elf which lived in caves and forged magick metal work.” (wiki, etymology)

Take the Senmurv, which appeared in the AD&D 2e Monstrous Compendium, whic is a derivative from the Persian mythological bird, the “Simurgh”. With this you can see that many creatures find their origins in mythological traditions from around the world.

Some items are derived from other literary sources too, e.g. the Vorpal sword or blade which appears in Lewis Carroll’s 1871 poem the Jabberwocky – and a very coveted item in the world of D&D.

You can sometimes use a change in spelling to disassociate your writing from something that has inspired you – but you need to make sure your version is not a “copy/paste” version of the creature but with a different spelling.

Or, you can reference the origin to acknowledge its intelectual property.

There is a stricter with things like poems, songs and lyrics, where you cannot re-use these unless you explicily reference the source – even using a couple of lines without referencing will often consitute a breach in copyright.

It may seem like a mammoth task at first, but in reality I don’t expect you’ll be looking up the etymology/origins of the entire monster manuals; so, hopefully with time, you will be able to build up a knowledge base and feel more comfortable knowing what you can/can’t use, what you reference and what you possibly adapt or take inspiration from.

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What Kinds of Leisure Chairs Are Available – Cryptocurrencies Corner

Nowadays people’s living standards are constantly improving, and they will enjoy life more and more. In order to meet this demand, many merchants will take them into account when producing products. Modern Leisure Chair are no exception. Now there is a leisure chair in the market that allows us relax and enjoy life while we are busy with our work.

Leisure Chair

The rattan chair is generally a bamboo chair frame. This type of leisure chair is very flexible and breathable. When choosing this kind of wicker chair, it is best to choose a backrest. You can then place an ottoman on the side so that your feet are flat.

Leisure chair folding chair

Speaking of folding chairs, you may not know the long history of this type of leisure chair. The development of the folding chair was about 2000-1500 BC, and the chair was the special seat of the army commander on the battlefield. This means that the folding chair is a symbol of power and status.

Lounge chair for leisure chairs

The recliner is no stranger to the Chinese. In the Qing Dynasty, the recliner was very popular. The appearance of the recliner is because of the continuous improvement of the craftsmanship and skills of the feudal society in China, and people pay more and more attention to the quality of life.

Leisure chair armrest lounge chair

Leisure chairs with armrests are often sold with coffee tables, usually with two chairs and a coffee table. Many of these chairs are made of wood. Sitting on a casual chair of this style, you can put your hands on the armrests and look particularly casual from the side. There is a charm that stops your hands and rests.

Leisure chair rocking chair

Rocking chair, according to its literal meaning, we can know that this chair can be shaken. Remember, it is a chair that swings back and forth. People can lie on top half, and the feeling is particularly comfortable as the chair sways gently.

As people life quality rise, the Modern Leisure Chair have not confined to the garden. Now in many public places such as: community, parks, entertainment plaza there are outdoor Leisure Chair . These outdoor leisure chair, beautiful appearance diversity. It has also become a lot of city beautiful elements, and brings great convenience to people. Modern Leisure Chair : https://www.insharefurniture.com/product/pp-leisure-chair/


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