dnd 5e – Can certain classes replace cantrips with other spells when they level up?

*Unless you use optional rules from Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything, see down below.

Spells Known of 1st Level and Higher (…)

Additionally, when you gain a level in this class, you can choose one of the spells you know and replace it with another spell from the spell list, which also must be of a level for which you have spell slots.

That section only applies to spells of 1st level or higher (context matters)

For the sorcerer, ranger, bard, and warlock the sentence above is under the section Spells Known of 1st Level and Higher.

The phrase must be interpreted with that context. When read this way it is clear that when it says “one of the spells you know” it is implied that it means only those 1st level and higher. There is a cantrip section immediately above that one which does not have any such wording.

Both the old and the new spell must be ones that use spell slots (and cantrips don’t)

Additionally, the phrasing implies that both the spell to be replaced and the one that it is being replaced with must use spell slots:

you can choose one of the spells you know and replace it with another
spell from the spell list, which also must be of a level for which you
have spell slots.

The implication being that the spell that is being replaced is already at a spell level for which you have spell slots. The reason they don’t say this more explicitly is likely because of the context of it being under a section that is only talking about spells of 1st level or higher. And cantrips, despite being 0 level spells, don’t use spell slots:

The first sentence of the rule on cantrips says they don’t use spell slots. The rule isn’t kidding.

This also seems to follow designer guidance/intent as Jeremy Crawford says explicitly here:

The sorcerer’s Spellcasting trait lets you replace a sorcerer spell
you know when you reach a new level in the class. The spell must be of
a level for which you have spell slots, which means it can’t be a
cantrip; cantrips don’t use spell slots.

Jeremy Crawford has also explained intent more generally:

Q: Is it possible at all to replace a known Cantrip with a different
one? Or is that a permanent choice?

A: Learning a cantrip is typically permanent. A DM could come up with
a story-based way to replace one w/ another.

The narrative reason for this is likely because cantrips are different from spells in that:

Repeated practice has fixed the spell in the caster’s mind and infused the caster with the magic needed to produce the effect over and over.

Jeremy Crawford seems to support this narrative as well:

A cantrip is special: it grows in power as you do, and it is magically bound to you. In most D&D worlds, that bond isn’t easy.

Tasha’s Cauldron of Everything includes new optional class features that allow for the swapping of cantrips. The exact method varies from class to class. For example, the Wizard’s Cantrip Formulas says:

You have scribed a set of arcane formulas in your spellbook that you can use to formulate a cantrip in your mind. Whenever you finish a long rest and consult these formulas in your spellbook, you can replace one wizard cantrip you know with another cantrip from the wizard spell list.

dnd 5e – What is the most effective way that a 20th level wizard can attempt to prevent demons or devils from accesssing the Material Plane?

There are several ways you could approach this. None of them are easy. In fact, all approaches are nigh-impossible with crippling drawbacks which make them useless for practical applications. I’ll get the simple one out of the way first.


Wish is on the Wizard spell list. You could wish that demons and devils will never enter the Material plane ever again. Alternatively, you might wish that demons and devils stop existing, which will also achieve the goal. This can work with a generous GM. But beware,

the greater the wish, the greater the likelihood that something goes wrong. This spell might simply fail, the effect you desire might only be partly achieved, or you might suffer some unforeseen consequence as a result of how you worded the wish.

Note that “some unforeseen consequence” in this scenario might involve the complete destruction of the Material Plane. Be careful what you wish for.

There is also the consideration that, if this task was as simple as casting a single standard spell, why hasn’t anyone succeeded before?

Use Private Sanctum, Forbiddance and Hallow

This method is perhaps more in the spirit of the question. There are three spells I know of which could be used to stop fiends from entering the Material plane permanently in an area. Given sufficient time, and assuming nobody opposes you by casting dispel magic on any of the spells, your wizard could cover any arbitrarily large (finite) volume. The real trick is “sufficient time”.

Private sanctum and forbiddance block planar travel completely. As demons and devils are native to planes other than the Material plane, they must perform planar travel to get here. Hallow can be used to specifically block fiends while still allowing planar travel for everyone else.

I’ll note that the feasibility of this method hinges on a very strong assumption: that the “Material Plane” which Bob Bigson wants to protect is a finite number of worlds (ideally just one). If your definition of Material Plane includes every possible world in the multiverse (as alluded to in the Player’s Handbook), or if you instead want to protect not just a planet but the entire infinite void of space, then you’re out of luck.

But most mortal beings, even epic level characters, only ever see one world in the Material Plane. For the sake of a tractable computation, I’ll assume that Bob Bigson is happy with protecting just his world on the Material Plane.

Mordenkainen’s Private Sanctum

A 4th wizard spell which can be used to block planar travel within a 100-foot cube originating at a point within 120 feet of your wizard. Upcasting increases the size by 100 feet per level. It has a 10 minute casting time. If you cast it in the same spot every day for a year it becomes permanent.

There are two main advantages to this spell over the other options. Firstly, it is on the wizard spell list. Secondly, it can cover any volume in range, including floating in the air. As a bonus, it also does not have any costly material components.


This 6th level cleric spell (which can be cast as a ritual) wards up to 40,000 square feet of floor space to a height of 30 feet above the floor against planar travel (that’s 200 by 200 by 30 feet). It can also be made to damage fiends who enter and stay in it. If you cast it in the same place every day for 30 days, the spell lasts until dispelled, and it consumes 1000 gp of ruby dust.

While this is a pretty good spell, as we only care about blocking planar travel it is mostly inferior to private sanctum, besides requiring only a twelfth of the time to become permanent.


This 5th level cleric spell affects an area with a radius of up to 60 feet from a point touched. It can be used to prevent fiends from entering the area. Hallow has a duration of Until Dispelled, not requiring multiple castings. Normally it has a casting time of 24 hours and costs 1000 gp of materials, but as it is not a wizard spell Bob Bigson will need to use wish to replicate it, subverting the casting time and material components.

This is exactly the effect we want, if only we could cover the whole Material plane with it. But there is a big caveat. Hallow does not work if its area overlaps another hallow spell. This is a problem, because it is not possible to pack non-overlapping spheres to fully cover an area.

(While I interpret hallow as being spherical, this is in dispute. Not that it helps you cover the sky, though.)

Note also that hallow targets a point touched. This means it cannot be placed in mid-air.


A viable strategy would be to cast hallow over the solid surfaces of the world (using wish or a bunch of cleric friends), cast forbiddance in all the gaps between the hallow spells and cast private sanctum in the air where hallow and forbiddance cannot reach.

Let us estimate the time it would take for our lone wizard to achieve this feat. Let us assume the world is Earth-like. The Earth has a surface area of 510.1 million square kilometres, or about $5.5times10^{15}$ square feet. Space is generally considered to begin at an altitude of 100 kilometres, or about 330,000 feet. This gives us a volume of about $1.8times10^{21}$ cubic feet to ward. I haven’t counted caves, but those would be counterbalanced by hills and mountains.

(For “space” to be a useful boundary, I assume that it is not viable for fiends to planar travel into the void of space then descend to the surface of your world. This may be due to how space works in your world or due to a limitation of demons and devils or creatures generically. If the demons and devils develop an interplanar space program you’ll be out of luck, although when you’re done the surface of your world will be utterly inhospitable to fiends so I don’t know why they’d try.)

Most of this volume will need to be covered with private sanctum because it is in the air. You would need to be able to fly for most of it, which you could achieve by any number of means. A broom of flying or carpet of flying is probably the best means, as they grant flight for an unlimited duration. You will also require a necklace of adaptation to survive in high-altitude environments.

A 20th level wizard has three 4th level slots, three 5th level, two 6th level, two 7th level, one 8th level and one 9th level slot. We’ll use that 9th level slot for casting wish to replicate hallow, and we’ll use the remaining slots on private sanctum. If we have the Boon of High Magic and the Boon of Spell Recall, we could cast wish two additional times a day. Our wizard could also get two extra 5th level spell slots per day with Arcane Recovery.

Not using 9th level slots, a 20th level wizard could cover $3times 100^3 + (3+2)times 200^3 + 2times 300^3 + 2times 400^3 + 1times 500^3 = 3.5times 10^8$ cubic feet per year with private sanctum. This would take our lone wizard about five trillion years to cover the Earth up to space in private sanctum (that is, five million million, $5times10^{12}$). Adding three 9th level slots gets us to $10^9$ cubic feet a year, which would take 1.8 trillion years instead. For reference, our Sun is expected to last only another 5 billion years before swallowing the Earth. The Earth would be long dead before you could completely block planar travel on the surface and the sky.

Of course, most of the trouble here comes from trying to fill the huge volume which is the sky. You have to do this, because many demons and devils can fly. You might get away with a lower altitude if demons and devils need to breathe, but that would not change the time by much.

Let us consider how long it would take to just cover the surface of the Earth. Dense circle packing has a roughly 90% efficiency. Hallow covers an area of $pitimes60^2=11,310$ square feet. As such, it would take $5.4times10^{11}$ castings of hallow to cover the Earth, which at three castings per day (from wish) is about 49 million years.

However, this does not account for the gaps. You could fill the gaps with forbiddance cast using wish, or with private sanctum. I’ll consider forbiddance as we can shape the floor space covered to more optimally fill the gaps left by hallow, and it only takes 30 days to make permanent.

Forbiddance covers 40,000 square feet per casting. To cover the remaining $5.5times10^14$ square feet will take $1.375times 10^{10}$ separate castings, which at three per month is about 4 billion years. You can shave a couple billion years off this time by using hallow with a smaller radius to fill some of the gaps, but a precise calculation of such a recursive strategy is too complex to attempt here.

So technically, RAW, a 20th level wizard could ward a whole world against incursions from all fiends. But the time required to do it is so astronomical that there won’t be a world left after you have finished the wards.

Also, to be absolutely sure…

The protection provided by private sanctum, hallow and forbiddance is fragile. Anyone on the Material plane could cast dispel magic on one of those wards, dispelling it and leaving a hole in your defences through which fiends could enter the Material plane.

To be absolutely sure that no fiends will ever be able to get onto the Material plane, you would also need to kill everyone capable of casting dispel magic and prevent anyone else from ever learning or casting dispel magic.

Of course, a lot can happen in 2 trillion years, so you probably won’t need to do that step yourself.

Dishonourable Mention: Genocide

If somehow you could kill all demons and devils and prevent them from spawning, this would trivially achieve your wish to stop demons and devils from entering the Material plane.

However, the methods required to do so are beyond the “RAW options” scope of this question. But I’ll give the main points anyway.

Depending on how the Lower Planes are structured in your multiverse, you may have an infinite number of demons. The Player’s Handbook labels the Abyss as “The Infinite Layers of the Abyss”. If there are an infinite number of layers, each occupied by demons, then there are an infinite number of demons, which means unless you can pull some fine cheese to produce an infinite number of soldiers you’ll never be able to kill all the demons. However, the Dungeon Master’s Guide says the Abyss has “virtually endless layers”, implying that the number of layers is not literally infinite, so there may still be hope for this plan.

But probably harder than killing all the fiends (which is mostly a matter of grinding through combat encounters) is making sure no new fiends spawn. The standard D&D cosmology is belief-driven. As long as mortals still believe that Evil exists, fiends will probably appear somewhere to fill that void. The total eradication of Evil is not necessarily impossible (the conditions for destroying the book of vile darkness implies that it can be done), but is definitely beyond what can be achieved with options from the rulebooks.

Depending on your cosmology, devils and demons could be spawned from the souls of mortals who go to the Lower Planes when they die. If this is the case, then somehow stopping souls from going to the Lower Planes could prevent devils and demons from spawning. But again, there is no option in the rulebooks to achieve that.

optimization – What video settings make a game portable over different level computers?

I’m making a videogame paying attention on optimization of texture, material, meshe and so on. I’ve kept a good level of quality while having a relatively high and stable frame-rate but I don’t have the possibility to test it on lower level devices.

What settings should I let players change to make the game less resource-eager? Of course, every setting make the game performe better but I would like to know what’s the “must-have” talking about performance settings.

Talking about Anti-Alyasing, texture quality, frame-rate limit, VSync etc.

And what settings make the players more happy if they can manipulate it? Not necessarly related to performance.

Talking about Blur, Vignetting, etc.

item level permissions – What is the GroupId for “Everyone except external users” in SharePoint online?

based on the additional points shared in the comments section, I feel you can look at the following model to achieve the need:

  1. Create a sub-site, say ‘Private’, under ‘Executive Site’, which should be accessible only by ‘Executives’. You can have a new group created only for ‘Executives’ and break inheritance on the sub site to provide permission only to that group.

  2. Now, have ‘Everyone except external users’ group added as ‘viewer’ in your top level ‘Executive Site’.

News created in ‘Executive Site’ and the ‘Private’ sub-site, both would roll up to the Hub. There is no way you can stop the roll up if you are using ‘News’ pages. ‘Everyone except external users’ (not members from ‘Executives’ group), will see news items published in the ‘Executive Site’, but they won’t be able to see any news from the ‘Private’ sub-site. News from ‘Private’ sub-site should be visible only to the members from ‘Executive’ group.

Let me know if this model will match your need.

Using managed property to filter News will work visually, but it will not necessarily restrict unwanted user-groups from viewing the content. They can always grab the direct link of the page to browse it. So, there should be restrictions through permission.

Just wanted to add that, SharePoint news audience targeting feature is in development which would give you more options over your particular issue.

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Please check Microsoft Roadmap for SharePoint Online.

sql server – What database level permissions are needed for to Transfer a Procedure to another schema

Per the documentation: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/sql/t-sql/statements/alter-schema-transact-sql?view=sql-server-ver15#permissions

To transfer a securable from another schema, the current user must have CONTROL permission on the securable (not schema) and ALTER
permission on the target schema.

If the securable has an EXECUTE AS OWNER specification on it and the
owner is set to SCHEMA OWNER, the user must also have IMPERSONATE
permission on the owner of the target schema.

All permissions associated with the securable that is being
transferred are dropped when it is moved.

CONTROL on the database, schema or individual tables should work. There isn’t much difference between CONTROL at the db level vs db_owner, so it might be better to temporarily grant db_owner and then remove it vs directly granting CONTROL permissions.

Auditing members of the db_owner role is a straight forward, simple process. Sorting through custom permission grants is substantially less clear.

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google workspace – Is there a way to filter Gmail messages based on personal level indicator?

I use Personal Level Indicator, so when I receive a message an arrow (if the message is not sent only to me) or a double arrow (if the message is sent only to me) is shown.

Is there a way to filter email by this mechanism? It would be even more useful for me to be able to filter and thus more clearly isolate those messages sent only to me.

dungeon world – Is there a move to increase the level of a hireling’s skill?

Dungeon World doesn’t have mechanics for this, but p. 36 says:

Generally hirelings only work for adventurers of equal or higher level than their highest skill.

That suggests that their skills could rise along with their employer’s level, if that fits the story. Deciding on that looks like a GM soft move, but you can make it more plausible by involving the hireling with the fiction.

Taking a Bond with a hireling might create a “henchman,” but that’s definitely an extension to the rules.

dnd 3.5e – How do I calculate weapon damage as I level up?

Damage is calculated as follows: Damage Die + Strength Modifier + Equipment Modifiers + Feats and Class Features

Damage Die: This is determined by the type and size of weapon. A longsword deals 1d8 damage. There is a table on the SRD (and in the Player’s Handbook) that lists each weapon’s base damage. There is another table slightly farther up that page which shows how to modify that weapon’s damage for each size.

In your case, Chakram, Whip Knife, and Web Dagger are all non-SRD weapons, so that table won’t help you. Your damage dice don’t change as you level up, however, so they remain 2d6, 1d6, and 1d8.

Strength Modifier: This is determined by your strength score, and can be calculated by (STR-10)/2, round down. For two-handed weapons, multiply the result by 1.5 (and round down again). For off-hand weapons, multiply the result by 0.5 (and round down).

Equipment Modifiers: These are bonuses provided by magical properties on your equipment. A +1 sword deals +1 damage; a Flaming sword adds +1d6 fire damage, etc.

Feats and Abilities: Some feats (such as Weapon Specialization) add directly to your damage, as described in the feat itself. Other feats, such as Power Attack, can modify your damage under certain conditions. Examples would be too numerous to list in this answer; check your feats and class features to determine if you have any that apply here.

Determine Level Structure of Graph


GraphLevels(graph_, rootvertex_) :=
    {"DiscoverVertex" -> (Sow(#1, #3) &)}),

(* Default for no vertex provided: *)

GraphLevels(graph_) := 
 If(EmptyGraphQ(graph), {}, 
  GraphLevels(graph, First@VertexList(graph)))

(* Test: *)

g = Graph({{1, 2}, {2, 3}, {3, 4}, {3, 5}, {3, 6}, {4, 7}});


(* Out: {0 -> {1}, 1 -> {2}, 2 -> {3}, 3 -> {4, 5, 6}, 4 -> {7}} *)

You could also replace Rule with some other function to force it in line with your desired level specification, e.g. (1 + #1) -> #2 &. (The current version uses the distance, which has 1 at 0.)

This sows each vertex discovered with its distance from the rootvertex as a tag. The second argument to Reap (_) says to collect all tags, and the last argument is a function f applied to the tag and the sowed data (f(tag, sowedlist)). Here, it’s Rule, so you get tag -> sowedlist, but

(You also could modify Rule to be any other function, if you want to store things differently, of course! But note that Association may be applied to the result of this GraphLevels, and then you could apply that association to a level value to extract that level quickly.)