windows subsystem for linux – how to remove docker machine distro in wsl2 command list?

I would like to remove some docker machines on the list of wsl

C:UsersMQ20200856>wsl -l --verbose
  NAME                   STATE           VERSION
* Ubuntu-20.04           Running         2
  docker-desktop-data    Stopped         2
  docker-desktop         Stopped         2

I would like to remove docker-desktop-data, I think that is docker volume.
I do not know how to remove it.

linux – How to efficiently communicate with Raspberry Pi using Django/Python

I have a raspberry pi that is sending an https request to my Django application every 2 seconds. The request is essentially asking the application ‘Has a user requested data from me?’
My Django application then responds to the request with either a ‘yes’ or a ‘no’. If it is a ‘yes’, the raspberry pi will send the packet of data requested.

My issue/concern: I have several raspberry pi’s now, and plan on adding many more. I am looking for a more efficient way of doing this, meaning not having 50 raspberry pi’s polling my server every 2 seconds each.

My plan is to have the raspberry pi’s do the following instead:

  • On startup, the raspberry pi will send it’s public IP to Django application via https request.
  • Every few seconds the raspberry pi will check to see if it’s own IP address has changed (in event the host network changes the IP?) If it has, update Django application.
  • Now, instead of the raspberry pi continuously polling the server, it will just wait for a request to send data because now the django application has it’s IP.

Is this a sound plan?

[WTS] QHoster.com: Linux OpenVZ Budget VPS starting from $5.83 per month!

NEW! Budget Linux VPS as low as $5.83 per month:

Locations:
Germany, Switzerland, Netherlands, Bulgaria (100 Gbps DDoS Protection), USA – Miami (FL), USA – New York (NY), Canada (480 Gbps DDoS Protection).

************************************************** ********************************
Discounts for all Shared Hosting and all VPS Hosting plans!

Coupon: QHOSTERSHARED60OFF3Y for 60% OFF for all Shared Hosting with 3-year plans, including Resellers!

Click here to Apply coupon QHOSTERSHARED60OFF3Y automatically to your cart for all 3 year plans!

Coupon: QHOSTERBIGSAVE2YR for 40% OFF for all VPS Hosting with 2-year plans!

Click here to Apply coupon QHOSTERBIGSAVE2YR automatically to your cart!

Apply to OpenVZ – Discount for 2 years auto provisioning!
Apply to Linux KVM – Discount for 2 years auto provisioning!
Apply to Linux XEN – Discount for 2 years auto provisioning!
Apply to Windows RDP KVM – Discount for 2 years auto provisioning!
Apply to Windows RDP XEN Discount for 2 years activation in ~1 hour!

Please note the discount is visible on the Review & Checkout step.
And Comodo Positive SSL certificate!
************************************************** ********************************
Linux OpenVZ (Budget) VPS (LE)

OpenVZ Light Edition VPS
1 GB Dedicated memory
20 GB Disk space
500 GB Bandwidth
Full Root access
1 IP address
CentOS/Debian/Ubuntu
$5.83 PER MONTH
(applies to annual payment)
ORDER NOW

Need another Linux VPS? Check here: https://click.pstmrk.it/2ts/www.QHos…Awe/lF-7kUdPWS

Desiderate Instant Managed VPS? Here you are: http://www.qhoster.com/cpanel-managed-vps.html

Current promotions:

***********************************************
Discounts for all hosting and all VPS plans and Comodo Positive SSL certificate:

QHSPRING33
Recurring 33% OFF!
(applies to any billing cycle)

***********************************************
QHoster payment options:

WebMoney, Perfect Money, Bitcoin, NETELLER, Payza (formerly Alertpay), Skrill (formerly Moneybookers), Litecoin, Darkcoin (DRK), SolidTrust Pay, cashU, Ukash, Payeer, OKPAY, EgoPay, paysafecard, Alipay, MoneyGram, Western Union, SOFORT Banking, QIWI, Alfa Click, Sberbank Rossii, Promsvyazbank (PSB), Svyaznoy, Przelewy24, Interac, Boleto Bancario, MercadoPago, PagSeguro, OneCard, DaoPay, Fortumo.

Learn More about Payment options here:
http://www.qhoster.com/payment-methods.html

Windows 7 & 2003/2008 Server in Minutes
Choose your payment option, choose your server location and get your best Windows VPS!

Instant Setup! Ready in 20 minutes!

Visit QHoster now.

cPanel Shared Webhosting
CR2QS5B85D30% OFF!
Applies to all shared and VPS plans, 3+ month period of order!

VPS and Dedicated Server
Personal voucher for $50
GHR8WY5P4P
(applies to annual billing cycles)

AMD Ryzen 3900X – (USA) – $229 per month
Memory: 64 GB DDR4 RAM
Primary Hard Drive / SSD: 1 TB NVMe (PCIe 4x)
Second Hard Drive / SSD: 1 TB NVMe (PCIe 2x)
Location: Miami, FL
Internet Port Speed: 1 Gbps Port
Monthly Bandwidth: 100 TB Bandwidth
ORDER: https://www.qhoster.com/clients/cart.php?a=add&pid=127

Xeon E3-1240 (v2 or v3) – (Netherlands/Canada/New Zealand) – $149 per month
Internet Port Speed: 1 Gbps Dedicated Port
Location: Amsterdam, Netherlands
Monthly Bandwidth: 20 TB Monthly Bandwidth
Memory: 16 GB RAM
IP Addresses: 5 Usable IPs
ORDER: https://www.qhoster.com/clients/cart.php?a=add&pid=129

D-1540 – (USA) – $149 per month
Internet Port Speed: 1 Gbps Dedicated Port
Location: Buffalo, New York, USA
Monthly Bandwidth: 20 TB Monthly Bandwidth
Memory: 32 GB RAM
Primary Hard Drive / SSD: 500 GB Primary SSD
IP Addresses: 5 Usable IPs
ORDER: https://www.qhoster.com/clients/cart.php?a=add&pid=128

Windows RDP VPS
– Managed & Scalable – Instant RDP VPS Upgrades – CPU, RAM etc.
– Full Adminstrator Access to Your Windows RDP VPS
– Use Windows Server & 7 Remotely Like Your Desktop Computer
– Choice: UK,USA,Canada,France,Germany,Netherlands,Switzerla nd

Windows VPS RDP (1)
2 CPU Cores (Intel Xeon)
1.5 GB Dedicated Memory
60 GB Disk Space
1 TB Monthly Bandwidth
1 GBit/s Internet Port
1 IP (additional 64 IPs)
Price $19.96/mo
ORDER HERE

Windows VPS RDP (2)
3 CPU Cores (Intel Xeon)
3 GB Dedicated Memory
120 GB Disk Space
2 TB Monthly Bandwidth
1 GBit/s Internet Port
1 IP (additional 64 IPs)
Price $39.92/mo
ORDER HERE

Windows VPS RDP (3)
4 CPU Cores (Intel Xeon)
4.5 GB Dedicated Memory
180 GB Disk Space
3 TB Monthly Bandwidth
1 GBit/s Internet Port
1 IP (additional 64 IPs)
Price $59.88/mo
ORDER HERE

Windows KVM Servers

Windows RDP VPS – KVM 1
1.5 GB Dedicated memory
60 GB Disk space
1000 GB Bandwidth
Administrator RDP access
1 IP address
Windows Server 2008/2012/2016
$24.95/m
ORDER HERE

Windows RDP VPS – KVM 2
3 GB Dedicated memory
120 GB Disk space
2000 GB Bandwidth
Administrator RDP access
1 IP address
Windows Server 2008/2012/2016
$49.90/m
ORDER HERE

Have questions?
Feel free to contact us:
https://www.qhoster.com/clients/subm…tep=2&deptid=1

.(tagsToTranslate)webmaster forum(t)internet marketing(t)search engine optimization(t)web designing(t)seo(t)ppc(t)affiliate marketing(t)search engine marketing(t)web hosting(t)domain name(t)social media

linux – Redhat ICMP packet loss

I have a monitoring server running rhel 7.8 which is monitoring around 10k devices.
I send 5 icmp packets to all of these hosts every 5 min and what i see is a constant small loss of packets across all my devices.

Here is a monthly packet loss graph for one of my hosts

Now most of my hosts looks like this but the pattern is random.

I checked my monitoring server and can see the following in netstat -s

Icmp:
573011944 ICMP messages received
17488 input ICMP message failed. <----- Quite a lot of failed
InCsumErrors: 350
ICMP input histogram:
    destination unreachable: 853539
    timeout in transit: 174117
    echo requests: 2698826
    echo replies: 569285112
584854712 ICMP messages sent
0 ICMP messages failed
ICMP output histogram:
    destination unreachable: 16717
    time exceeded: 4
    echo request: 582139165
    echo replies: 2698826

I am quite stuck here and i am having trouble finding a place to start troubleshooting this issue, do any of you have some tips for me ?

Please and thank you!

Movi uma arquivo de nome igual a uma pasta dentro de um diretório no Linux

Não consigo mais vê-lo. O que aconteceu com o arquivo?

linux – MIT Kerberos: getting keytabs onto hosts securely

When setting up a host (… or updating its keytab if it needs new entries), what’s the standard way to set up keytabs?

Looks like the MIT Kerberos docs themselves recommend using ktadmin on the host itself (… sadly, I can’t find the exact page anymore to link though). However… I’d presume this involves getting an admin-level ticket onto the new host (… e.g. by logging in using an admin password).

That is, if the host has been compromised, the attacker now has admin powers.

Alternatively, you could create the keytab somewhere else (e.g. on the KDC or your own, secure-enough machine) and copy it over to the new host. However, scp won’t work if root ssh is disabled on the target; you can either copy it over to an unprivileged user’s home (… an user account that’s hopefully not used for anything else?), and make another copy as sudo root…

… or my personal solution is exporting a keytab, base64-ing it, and then running base64 -d | sudo tee /etc/krb5.keytab on the target. Which… works, but I presume there are more elegant solutions to this?

Or is “keylogger on host” a risk that everyone just accepts?

linux – BTRFS issue mounting in fstb

I have a personal media server that for some reason or another I thought would be a good idea to use btrfs on the media – it was in my early days of Linux and I don’t exactly remember my reasoning for choosing btrfs, but essentially I could have used ext4 with LVG but I wasn’t aware of that. Anyways long story short it’s four 4TiB drives that are put together inside of some kind of VG. I don’t recall how I did it, though I’m pretty sure I found an article on How to Geek or Techmint and just walked through those steps. Fast forward 2.5 years and I decided to update from Centos 7 to Centos 8, thinking this shouldn’t be a problem (stupid me). After installing Centos 8 and realizing that they dropped btrfs support, I decided to move to Ubuntu 20.04.1, now when I try to mount the drives it’s like they have never been formatted. When I run:

sudo blkid

It get the following:

/dev/sdb: PTUUID="9cd3ff7f-7c3c-4805-88b8-c3b800dc061a" PTTYPE="gpt"
/dev/sdc: PTUUID="4c4fac1c-3eee-4c1e-9093-b47f64bdbb27" PTTYPE="gpt"
/dev/sde: PTUUID="a6f19bd8-5c9c-4488-a11b-0451409b44a7" PTTYPE="gpt"
/dev/sdd: PTUUID="e8a21df7-ced6-42ce-9899-4fef83ac6255" PTTYPE="gpt"

When I run any of the btrfs commands It says it doesn’t see any btrfs drives. Nothing weird shows up in dmesg either. This has me entirely baffled. Worse case scenario I blow these drives away and start over, but I have about 8 TiB of media (TV Shows and Movies) that would prefer not to lose. If anyone has a solution on how I can mount these drives (or even documentation) it would be much appreciated.

linux – DD-WRT not routing clients over OpenVPN

I have a Linux router and OpenVPN client at home (running dd-wrt) which is connected to my office network via OpenVPN. From the router itself, I can access my office LAN and its hosts. However, from my home LAN, I can access the internet via my dd-wrt router, but not the Office LAN.

My setup goes like this:

.--------------.       .--------.          .----------------.
| Home network |------>| dd-wrt |---vpn--->| Office network |
'--------------'       '--------'          '----------------'
 172.18.20.0/24        172.18.20.1           172.18.11.0/24             
     
                             `-----works--------´  /
                                                  /
        `--------doesn't work---------------------´
 
root@ix1:~# ping 172.18.11.1
PING 172.18.11.1 (172.18.11.1): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 172.18.11.1: seq=0 ttl=64 time=63.372 ms
 
root@ix1:~# route -n
Kernel IP routing table
Destination     Gateway         Genmask         Flags Metric Ref    Use Iface
0.0.0.0         192.168.0.1     0.0.0.0         UG    0      0        0 eth1
127.0.0.0       0.0.0.0         255.0.0.0       U     0      0        0 lo
169.254.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.0.0     U     0      0        0 br0
172.16.0.0      172.18.11.9     255.255.0.0     UG    0      0        0 tun1
172.18.11.0     172.18.11.9     255.255.255.0   UG    0      0        0 tun1
172.18.11.9     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.255 UH    0      0        0 tun1
172.18.20.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 br0
192.168.0.0     0.0.0.0         255.255.255.0   U     0      0        0 eth1
 
root@ix1:~# cat /tmp/openvpncl/route-up.sh
#!/bin/sh
iptables -D INPUT -i tun1 -j ACCEPT
iptables -D FORWARD -i tun1 -j ACCEPT
iptables -D FORWARD -o tun1 -j ACCEPT
iptables -I INPUT -i tun1 -j ACCEPT
iptables -I FORWARD -i tun1 -j ACCEPT
iptables -I FORWARD -o tun1 -j ACCEPT
 
root@ix1:~# ip a|grep tun1
9: tun1: <POINTOPOINT,MULTICAST,NOARP,UP,10000> mtu 1500 qdisc pfifo_fast qlen 100
    inet 172.18.11.10 peer 172.18.11.9/32 scope global tun1
 
root@ix1:~# iptables --list
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
ACCEPT     udp  --  anywhere             anywhere            udp spt:bootps dpt:bootpc
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:www
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:https
DROP       udp  --  anywhere             anywhere            udp dpt:route
DROP       udp  --  anywhere             anywhere            udp dpt:route
ACCEPT     udp  --  anywhere             anywhere            udp dpt:route
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             ix1                 tcp dpt:www
logbrute   tcp  --  anywhere             ix1                 tcp dpt:telnet
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             ix1                 tcp dpt:telnet
DROP       icmp --  anywhere             anywhere
DROP       igmp --  anywhere             anywhere
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW
DROP       0    --  anywhere             anywhere
 
Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere
ACCEPT     gre  --  172.18.20.0/24       anywhere
ACCEPT     tcp  --  172.18.20.0/24       anywhere            tcp dpt:1723
lan2wan    0    --  anywhere             anywhere
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere
TRIGGER    0    --  anywhere             anywhere            TRIGGER type:in match:0 relate:0
trigger_out  0    --  anywhere             anywhere
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW
DROP       0    --  anywhere             anywhere
 
Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_1 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_10 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_2 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_3 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_4 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_5 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_6 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_7 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_8 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain advgrp_9 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_1 (1 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_10 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_2 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_3 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_4 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_5 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_6 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_7 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_8 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain grp_9 (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
 
Chain lan2wan (1 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
grp_1      0    --  anywhere             anywhere
 
Chain logaccept (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere
 
Chain logbrute (1 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
           0    --  anywhere             anywhere            recent: SET name: BRUTEFORCE side: source
RETURN     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            !recent: UPDATE seconds: 60 hit_count: 4 name: BRUTEFORCE side: source
RETURN     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            limit: avg 1/min burst 1
DROP       0    --  anywhere             anywhere
 
Chain logdrop (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
DROP       0    --  anywhere             anywhere
 
Chain logreject (0 references)
target     prot opt source               destination
REJECT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with tcp-reset
 
Chain trigger_out (1 references)
target     prot opt source               destination

How to resolve single-name (no dot) domain names with upstream DNS server on Linux workstations

We are using dnsmasq on our firewall machine and have set up the machine with the hosts file for all our printers and other shared resource machines. This should let us use this as a distributed hosts file, as dnsmasq will respond to queries that it sees in the local machine’s hosts.

This is working well from Windows machines. A NAS device, “tusker”, for example, is set up as 192.168.42.4. I can “ping tusker” from any windows machine and it will correctly resolve that to 192.168.42.4. We also have some Linux workstations, however, and none of them will resolve any single-name domain name. They are a mix of mostly Debian-based distros (Debian, Ubuntu, Mint, Arch) and universally the response to “ping tusker” on any of them is “temporary failure in name resolution”. They don’t seem to be passing on any single-name domain name queries to the DNS server. It sees there are no entries in its local hosts file and stops there without sending the query up.

I’ve tried “options ndots:0” in resolv.conf to no effect. Is there a way to tell the Linux resolver to always send names up to resolve regardless of how many levels are in the host name?

linux – How to change the file system of a partition in a RAID 1?

First, sorry if the question has already been asked and correctly answered, I did not find anything that satisfies me.

I rent a dedicated machine in a datacenter, the machine run with a Debian 10 and has two drives in RAID 1, there are 3 partitions: one for the boot, one for the swap and one for the rest.

The third (/dev/md2) uses the ext4 file system and I would like to use XFS instead.

I am not used to changing the filesystem and this is the first time I have a machine with RAID so I do not know how to do it.

This is a new installation so there is no risk of losing data.

I tried a mkfs.xfs /dev/md2 but it didn’t work:

root@Debian-105-buster-64-minimal ~ # mkfs.xfs /dev/md2
mkfs.xfs: /dev/md2 contains a mounted filesystem

And I don’t know how it should be unmount/mount due to the RAID.

Thank you in advance for the help.

The df -Th command :

root@Debian-105-buster-64-minimal ~ # df -Th
Filesystem     Type      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
udev           devtmpfs   32G     0   32G   0% /dev
tmpfs          tmpfs     6.3G  516K  6.3G   1% /run
/dev/md2       ext4      437G  1.2G  413G   1% /
tmpfs          tmpfs      32G     0   32G   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs          tmpfs     5.0M     0  5.0M   0% /run/lock
tmpfs          tmpfs      32G     0   32G   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/md1       ext3      487M   53M  409M  12% /boot
tmpfs          tmpfs     6.3G     0  6.3G   0% /run/user/1000

the fdisk -l command :

root@Debian-105-buster-64-minimal ~ # fdisk -l
Disk /dev/nvme0n1: 477 GiB, 512110190592 bytes, 1000215216 sectors
Disk model: SAMSUNG MZVLB512HAJQ-00000
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0x0289e0d1

Device         Boot    Start        End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/nvme0n1p1          2048   67110911  67108864    32G fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/nvme0n1p2      67110912   68159487   1048576   512M fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/nvme0n1p3      68159488 1000213167 932053680 444.4G fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/nvme1n1: 477 GiB, 512110190592 bytes, 1000215216 sectors
Disk model: SAMSUNG MZVLB512HAJQ-00000
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xbcb5c0d2

Device         Boot    Start        End   Sectors   Size Id Type
/dev/nvme1n1p1          2048   67110911  67108864    32G fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/nvme1n1p2      67110912   68159487   1048576   512M fd Linux raid autodetect
/dev/nvme1n1p3      68159488 1000213167 932053680 444.4G fd Linux raid autodetect


Disk /dev/md1: 511 MiB, 535822336 bytes, 1046528 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/md0: 32 GiB, 34325135360 bytes, 67041280 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes


Disk /dev/md2: 444.3 GiB, 477076193280 bytes, 931789440 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

The mdstat :

root@Debian-105-buster-64-minimal ~ # cat /proc/mdstat
Personalities : (raid1) (linear) (multipath) (raid0) (raid6) (raid5) (raid4) (raid10)
md2 : active raid1 nvme0n1p3(0) nvme1n1p3(1)
      465894720 blocks super 1.2 (2/2) (UU)
      bitmap: 0/4 pages (0KB), 65536KB chunk

md0 : active (auto-read-only) raid1 nvme0n1p1(0) nvme1n1p1(1)
      33520640 blocks super 1.2 (2/2) (UU)
        resync=PENDING

md1 : active raid1 nvme0n1p2(0) nvme1n1p2(1)
      523264 blocks super 1.2 (2/2) (UU)

unused devices: <none>