network – Local Ports On Browser Connections

When “netstat -ano” displays the results, why do connections from my browser to websites use a bunch of strange local ports to connect to remote 80/443? Maybe this is normal. Sorry for asking such a newb question lol.

For example

Proto Local Address Foreign Address State PID

  • TCP x.x.x.x:25708 x.x.x.x:443 ESTABLISHED 1111
  • TCP x.x.x.x:28310 x.x.x.x:443 ESTABLISHED 1111
  • TCP x.x.x.x:28729 x.x.x.x:443 ESTABLISHED 1111
  • TCP x.x.x.x:50021 x.x.x.x:443 ESTABLISHED 1111
  • TCP x.x.x.x.145:50026 x.x.x.x:443 ESTABLISHED 1111

network – rtcreportingd connection to

network – rtcreportingd connection to – Ask Different

python – Scapy isn’t outputting any computers connected to network

I’m using Scapy to output all connected computers and VMs connected to network:

 from scapy.all import ARP, Ether, srp

 target_ip = ''
 arp = ARP(pdst=target_ip)
 ether = Ether(dst='ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff')
 packet = ether/arp
 result = srp(packet, timeout=3)(0)
 clients = ()
 for s, r in result:
    clients.append({'ip': r.psrc, 'mac': r.hwsrc})
 for client in clients:
    print(f'{client("ip")} {client("mac")}')

There are 6 IPs on the network 1 of which is a virtual machine.
Running the script above gives me:

Begin emission:
.Finished sending 256 packets.
Received 13 packets, got 0 answers, remaining 256 packets

As this is a recon part of the whole pentest process it is concerning that
scapy isn’t giving me any devices.

Any suggestions ?


(owasp) mark@work:~/owasp$ nmap -n -sV
Starting Nmap 7.80 ( ) at 2021-07-26 18:59 BST
Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.018s latency).
Not shown: 998 closed ports
23/tcp open  telnet  DD-WRT telnetd (DD-WRT v24-sp2 micro (c) 2009 NewMedia-NET GmbH)
80/tcp open  http    DD-WRT milli_httpd
Service Info: OS: Linux; Device: WAP; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.0075s latency).
Not shown: 998 closed ports
22/tcp open  ssh     Dropbear sshd 2012.55 (protocol 2.0)
80/tcp open  http    TP-LINK embedded httpd
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

Nmap scan report for
Host is up (0.00014s latency).
All 1000 scanned ports on are closed

Service detection performed. Please report any incorrect results at .
Nmap done: 256 IP addresses (3 hosts up) scanned in 10.61 seconds

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How can I make an ICS client available to other computers on the host’s network?

How can I ping an ICS client from other computer on the ICS host network? Please see this
simplified Diagram of my network. I would like ‘Computer B’ to be able to ping the ICS client. Assuming firewalls have been configured properly, how can I address the ICS client from other computers on my network?


graph theory – Centrality measures in a network with negative correlations

I have a bidirectional network where the weights of edges are based on partial correlation matrix. I have both positive and negative values as weights. Now, I want to compute centrality measures as degree, closeness, betweenness and eigenvector. How can I handle the negative values? Would I get correct values for these measures, if I keep the negatives? Should I use absolute value or take (1-absolute value)?

Basically, I am confused about if these values would affect the outcome in any way. I have not found any resources that would discuss this. Please recommend, if you know any.

lightning network – What is special about blocks 540574 and 564180?

I am running c-lightning with a pruned bitcoind backend. Every day at around the same time, c-lightning asks for a specific block which is already pruned, which looks like this in the logfile (block 540574 in this case):

2021-07-25T10:06:49.026Z UNUSUAL plugin-bcli: bitcoin-cli -rpcuser=... -rpcpassword=... getblock 00000000000000000010b0d763e1835bdb9921ae4b8adbb6d88d8cfcfbc392aa 0 exited with status 1

According to this comment from Christian, it is save to ignore this warning. But because it appears every second in the logs and it feels spammy, I restart c-lighting and the error is gone until the other block (block 564180) is missing. Then I get the same message in the logs but for block 564180, also at around the same time every day.

I am pretty sure the two blocks have nothing to do with each other and also the blocks are probably specific to a channel (or two) I’ve opened with my node. So my question in the title is maybe a little bit misleading. That it happens with two blocks is probably also just a coincidence. But what my “real” questions are:

  1. Why is the error gone after a restart? Does c-lightning “forget” it wanted to know about that specific block?
  2. Why does the error appear at around the same time every day?

If this isn’t the place to ask this, please tell me! I thought about opening an issue on github. Wasn’t sure about this.

graph theory – Finding the congestion, LMC and CML for this network

Consider a network with the following specifications:

(The) network has the following specifications: every input node will be sent to a butterfly network, a Benes network and a 2-d array network. At the end, the outputs of all three networks will converge on the new output.

The structure of the network looks like this.

(In this network) a minimum latency routing does not have minimum congestion. The latency for min-congestion (LMC) of a net is the best bound on latency achievable using routings that minimize congestion. Likewise, the congestion for min-latency (CML) is the best bound on congestion achievable using routings that minimize latency.

We have to find out the following for this graph:

  1. Diameter
  2. Number of switches required
  3. Congestion
  4. LMC
  5. CML

My answer:

  1. Diameter = 2N+2
  2. Number of switches required = N2+3N+3NlogN
  3. Congestion = √N if N is an even power of 2 and √(N/2) if N is an odd power of 2
  4. LMC = 2N
  5. CML = √N

Am I correct?

network – Is there way to know what headers can be accepted by HTTP server?

No, not really. There is no part of the HTTP protocol where the server is expected to list headers it is interested in. It’s not common practice for servers to do either – I have never seen anything like that anywhere.

You could guess the name or try to brute force it. But unless the name is obvious, you are very unlikely to succeed since the brute force has to be done online, one HTTP request per guess.

If you have access to the source code (or even the binaries) that the server is running, you could find the answer there. Or perhaps some leaked documentation or social engineering could provide you with this information.

So if there is no obvious way to exploit this, does it mean that a bypass like that is a secure thing? Absolutely not. Expect your source code to be leaked. Secrets should be separate from source code, and easily replaced. A hardcoded backdoor like that is the opposite.

I don’t know if you were considering making one. But please don’t.

lightning network – Does balance broadcasting hinder scalability of LN?

Assume the lightning network wants to support 100k payments per second globally.

Now every time a payment is attempted, aborted or settled the balance of almost every channel in the payment flow changes. Assuming 5 channels being involved in a payment (and assuming no failed payments as the balance values would magically instantly known to all peers) this would still result in 1M messages that would have to be broadcasted to every participant in the network per second.

Assuming 100 Bytes per message (as we have not only the balance value but timestamps, shortchannel ids, signatures to prevent spoofing and hmacs) this would be at least (!) a datastream of 100 MByte /second for every participant wich is almost 1 Gigabit/sec

Even if the internet would not break if every participant was constantly requiring such a throughput the nodes would have to be able to processes all that information. A regular webserver on commodity hardware can handle up to 10k http requests per second. So also the nodes would have some serious challenges.

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