network – does TLS (Transport Layer Security) protect against deliberate tampering or accidental corruption?

It depends on where the data was changed and all the results you mentioned are possible. TLS messages have a certain public structure. For example, TLS record:

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and if its structure is broken, then the whole message is considered broken. This does not necessarily mean whether the figures have also been falsified.

If only the encrypted text has been falsified to keep the entire structure valid, this can cause decryption to fail. If the payload is tampered with and has been successfully decrypted, validation of the signature will fail.

If the MAC field is falsified, this will cause a failure to validate the signature. MAC only protects the payload and is only used when the payload is correctly decrypted.

In all cases, the falsification will be detected, only the reason for the detection will be different depending on what has been exactly falsified. RFC 5246 defines a set of messages:

enum {
   unsupported_extension(110),           /* new */
} AlertDescription;

network – Routing based on Ubiquiti policy: route an IP only via a VPN

I would like to route a single client via a VPN (Wireguard) on an Ubiquiti Edgerouter.

Edgerouter is in switching mode, eth0 = uplink (, client = eth4 with manual IP address

The VPN connection / interface is operational, I checked by curl --interface wg0.


set service nat rule 5010 outbound-interface wg0
set service nat rule 5010 outside-address address !WG0ADDRESS!
set service nat rule 5010 type source

set protocols static table 1 description 'table to force wg0:mullvad'
set protocols static table 1 interface-route next-hop-interface wg0
set protocols static table 1 route blackhole distance 255

set firewall group address-group HOME_MULLVAD description 'hosts in HOME that route out via Mullvad'
set firewall group address-group HOME_MULLVAD address

set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY description 'set routing tables selectively based on source address'
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 10 action accept
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 10 description 'exclude LAN to LAN traffic from PBR'
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 10 destination address
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 200 action modify
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 200 description 'modify selective hosts within haven (these hosts will be redirected trough VPN)'
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 200 modify table 1
set firewall modify PBR_MODIFY rule 200 source group address-group HOME_MULLVAD
set interfaces ethernet eth4 firewall in modify PBR_MODIFY

Result: no more connection to the Edgerouter. The eth0 uplink originally had the IP address, after applying these rules and restarting, I can't even ping it.

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windows 7 – How to fix the red X of a single WiFi network on the list of available networks?

I have access to 2 routers with this laptop, Windows 7 Professional HP.

The problem is that I want to be able to connect to both wireless networks (the first and the last on the list), but only I can connect to the first. The last one is marked with a red X.

The former has WPA2-PSK and the latter has WPA2-PSK if that matters.

Maybe someone could help me know what I can do to fix it. Thanks in advance.

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Flash Network – What is your opinion on the block size debate?

I have been following Bitcoin for a few years now, and I was wondering what the developers are thinking here about block size right now.

I realize that we can never evolve towards millions of transactions per second on the chain, I understand that – that's why LN etc. is under construction to also maintain the decentralization of Bitcoins while continuing to evolve. But wouldn't that also benefit the Lightning network, that more "deposits" on the chain to LN could be made in one block (imagine a few million users trying to access LN at the same time – the Bitcoins blockchain would be blocked quickly – essentially meaning no deposit in LN for a long time?).

If the block size has been increased to say 10 times (10 MB): I realize that Bitcoin node operators would start to experience problems with storing the fast growing blockchain (more centralization) – but then again , is it really necessary that everyone can execute a knot? Aren't nodes primarily used for miners and programmers?

I realize that validating your own transactions is a great thing, but should that be hindering scaling up on the chain? It is a cutting edge, but I think we have to find a balance. Either way, at 10MB we would be increasing the blockchain by 1.4GB per day, or 500GB per year (assuming the blocks are full), which is a lot. But then again, it's not unusual to see hard drives the size of a few double-digit TB these days – it seems that capacity is on an increasing trend, so maybe decentralization is possible. after all at this size? I'm really curious to hear more arguments against increasing the size of the blocks, now that a few years have passed since the big boom 🙂

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network – Port forwarding – Webmasters Stack Exchange

I have to forward the TCP ports 3478 -3850. So, should I use SIP-TCP. Should I activate UPnP or DMZ for games?
I tried to insert a range of ports but there was no option to do so.
I have a serious problem of packet loss on psyonix servers.

Windows 10 networking issue with permission granted to other computers via IP or network share name

Windows 10 networking is so messed up, I tried all the remedies and watched all the tutorials, to give permission to access a specific computer … the only thing I did found found gives permission at drive c and user level for "everyone" and then by specifically typing the explorer bar with computer or IP name and drive c ( lenovoT530 c)

My question is how to give permission to access the computer by the name of the network, as shown under network without mapping drive c to the name of the computer.

If I click on NETWORK then on LENOVOT530 computer as it is sub-listed under network, it indicates that I do not have permission to access "LENOVOT530", contact the Network administrator.