key management – Is there any standard or protocol of key exchange between multiple nodes?

A little context: I’m working in designing a system to sign and verify data sent between modules of a bigger system. Currently the system has two parts, a central application and a SDK inside modules which is making all the key exchange and communication with the central server.

This are the relevant points so far:

  1. I generate a key pair for each module every day at a given time (lets say 12 am). This is done in a central application which has an HSM as the main key store
  2. I need to send the key pair to their owner along with the public keys of every other module in the system

I know that in cryptography is always better to use something existent than create your own approach so the questions are:

Is there any protocol, algorithm or standard for this centralized key exchange?
How can I assure that all the modules had receive the public keys of the other modules?

Thank you, I hope I’ve been clear enough, English is not my native language

transactions – Possible to secret messages to other LN nodes over the LN using “Lightning messages” for purposes other than the “transfer of bitcoin?”

In the Mastering Lightning Network book section 3, it describes the Lightning Network as being “… so much more than the cryptographic protocols on top of the Bitcoin scripting language. It is a comprehensive communication protocol that allows peers to exchange Lightning messages to achieve the transfer of bitcoin. The communication protocol defines how Lightning messages are encrypted and exchanged.”

My question is: can this protocol be leveraged for generalized communication other than sending bitcoin transfer information? Can messages to friends be encrypted and sent using the protocol as well? Seems like the network could have extendable purpose in this way; however, since I am new to the LN and learning as I go, I’m unsure of the technical feasibility of this.

bitcoin core – How do full nodes get the information about stale blocks?

In Bitcoin, many forks occur when multiple miners mine blocks at the same time. Then there will be multiple blocks at the same block height.
I was looking at the Bitcoin P2P developer guide at https://developer.bitcoin.org/devguide/p2p_network.html

For propagating blocks, a relay sends an “inv” message to its peers. The peers request header info with “getheaders” and relay responds with “headers” message. Then the peers request block info with “getdata” and relay responds with “block” message.

In this case, how can peers be assured of getting multiple blocks at the same block height? A relay could deliberately propagate “inv” and “headers” messages for only one of the blocks at the same block height.

How can peers even know that a fork happened? Is getting the information about the fork the responsibility of the relay or the peer?

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Bellman-Ford algorithm and nodes that not appear on negative cycle

Given directed graph $G=(V,E,omega,s,t)$ that $omega:Eto mathbb{R}$ is the weight function on $E$, and we want to find shortest path from $s$ to $t$. First we run Bellman-Ford algorithm to finding shortest path from $s$ to $t$, but after termination of the algorithm, i know that if distance of a node $v$ changed, then the graph contain negative cycle that reachable from the source, so, can we conclude that $v$ necessarily appear in negative cycle or not?

My attempt:
I think not necessarily $v$ appear in negative cycle. Consider below example that $t$ not on any negative cycle, but after termination of the algorithm, if we update the distance, its distance changed.
Can we conclude that $v$ sometimes appear in negative cycle or sometimes not appear on any cycle?

enter image description here

9 – Programmatically publish unpublished nodes

The code is calling execute() on the object returned from $query->andConditionGroup(), but that object doesn’t implement any execute() method.

The correct way to use andConditionGroup() is shown in QueryBase::andConditionGroup().

$query = Drupal::entityQuery('drawing');
$group = $query->andConditionGroup()
  ->condition('figures.color', 'red')
  ->condition('figures.shape', 'triangle');
$query->condition($group);
$group = $query->andConditionGroup()
  ->condition('figures.color', 'blue')
  ->condition('figures.shape', 'circle');
$query->condition($group);
$entity_ids = $query->execute();

In your case, using andConditionGroup() isn’t necessary, as the query executed by that code will returns all nodes for which:

  • The content type is level3
  • The title is $file_name
  • The status is 0

It doesn’t return all the nodes for which at least one of those conditions is true. It’s similar to what the following code does, which returns all the page nodes where the value of field_some_field is higher than 14.

$query = Drupal::entityQuery('node')
  ->condition('type', 'page')
  ->condition('field_some_field', 14, '>');
$results = $query->execute();

$query->execute() returns an array of entity IDs, not an entity nor an array of entities. $nids = $query->execute(); $nids->setPublished(TRUE)->save(); is still wrong, as an array doesn’t implement the setPublished() method.
Given an array of node IDs $nids, the correct code to load the nodes is the following one.

$nodes = Drupal::entityTypeManager()->getStorage('node')->loadMultiple(array_values($nids));

$nodes will contain an array of entities. Publishing them can be achieved with the following code.

foreach ($nodes as $node) {
  $node->setPublished(TRUE)->save();
}

The object returned from Drupal::entityQuery() verifies the currently logged-in user has view access to the returned nodes. In most of the cases, the user doesn’t have access to unpublished nodes. To avoid the query returns only the nodes the currently logged-in user can view, it’s necessary to call $query->accessCheck(FALSE), as in $query = Drupal::entityQuery('node')->checkAccess(FALSE);

Furthermore, the exists('nid') call isn’t necessary, as the node ID is always saved for nodes.

Leaving out the loop on $i_selected, the code I would use is the following one.

$query = Drupal::entityQuery('node')->checkAccess(FALSE);

$nids = $query->condition('type', 'level3')
  ->condition('title', $file_name)
  ->condition('status', '0')
  ->execute();

$nodes = Drupal::entityTypeManager()->getStorage('node')->loadMultiple(array_values($nids));

foreach ($nodes as $node) {
  $node->setPublished(TRUE)->save();
}

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Description:
Show nodes as grid with some extra features.

Features:

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  • grid nodes work for subforums in forum view and category view too
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magento2 – Elasticsearch – M2.4 – Docker: Could not validate a connection to Elasticsearch. No alive nodes found in your cluster

I have a docker with these env

docker ps
CONTAINER ID        IMAGE                  COMMAND                  CREATED             STATUS              PORTS                                            NAMES
9c46a3807d4f        dc_php-apache          "docker-php-entrypoi…"   21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:8050->80/tcp, 0.0.0.0:9050->443/tcp      dc_php-apache_1
2f3e7a799029        mariadb:10.3           "docker-entrypoint.s…"   21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         3306/tcp                                         dc_mariadb_1
6a40a702e37b        elasticsearch:7.8.1    "/tini -- /usr/local…"   21 hours ago        Up 21 hours         0.0.0.0:9200->9200/tcp, 0.0.0.0:9300->9300/tcp   dc_elasticsearch_1

Now when I run bin/magento setup:upgrade

I’m getting Could not validate a connection to Elasticsearch. No alive nodes found in your cluster
I’m probably just missing a config somewhere but I want find where, activating or not the module Magento_InventoryElasticsearch doesn’t seem to have any effect.

Thanks for your assistance !

9 – Display all the nodes from a specific content type on the front page

There is a simple way to show content on the front page.

Go to Admin -> Structure -> Content Types. (/admin/structure/types/manage/)

For your content type News, click Edit. (You may need to click the flippy triangle next to Manage fields to get the Edit option.)

Scroll down to Publishing options. Make sure Promoted to front page is checked.

Note: If you change your front page to something other than the default, this setting may not work depending on what you changed the front page to.