wallet recovery – How can I recover the missing end of my private key?

You don’t need to bruteforce anything here (at least almost), and can recover the missing last 7 characters on an average PC at home within less than 1 second using a simple Python script!

In your picture there are 7 characters missing at the end of the private key (figured out by comparing with a test-printout using the same HTML file).

Yes, it is correct that this key format is using Base58 alphabet and therefore there are 58 possibilities per character, so for 7 characters you would need to try 58^7 possibilities (which would be about 2 trillions) in theory, but all these considerations are missing an important fact:

When such a private key (the format is called WIF short for Wallet Import Format, see also the reference documentation here) is encoded, at the end (after the actual private key) 4 bytes are added as a checksum. So if these 4 bytes are missing (at the end) you can calculate it from the rest.

Second: in your picture it looks like your private key starts with an L. This indicates that the Bitcoin address is based on a compressed public key. Don’t worry, this is a technical detail, but this helps you further:
Private keys for compressed pubkeys have another special byte added after the key (and before the checksum), namely a fixed 0x01 (see also in the reference documenation for WIF).

This means that the last 5 bytes of a WIF encoded private key (starting with L or K) are either static or can be computed from the rest.

So you are very lucky that the last 7 characters are missing (and not the first 7, because then you really would need to bruteforce 2 trillion possibilities).

What to do with this information:

If we apply this knowledge now to base58 we see that only a single character is missing and then we can calculate the rest.

Reasoning: first: a single base58 character carries ~5.85799 = log2(58) bits of information and second: we don’t need the last 40 bits (4 bytes checksum + 1 static byte for compressed key are 5 bytes = 40 bits).

So, if only 6 characters would be missing at the end (6 * 5.85799.. = 35.14794) we not need to bruteforce anything, because this would be still less than the 40 bits we don’t need.


As you are missing 7 characters we just need to bruteforce one single character (and this means just 58 attempts, not 2 trillions).
So we just attempt to add one of the 58 characters from the bas58 alphabet. For each attempt we calculate the full base58 string by adding the static compressed key flag byte (0x01) and after that the checksum and simply compare it with the rest of the key you have. If it matches it is a valid candidate.

At the end of these 58 attempts you will end up with 2 or 3 (at most) valid private key candidates, and just need to check these 3 keys, to see which one belongs to your address.

The Reddit user /u/dooglus/ (not me) pointed out exactly this in the first place in his comment on your post and he also added a snippet of Python code which does exactly I’ve described above.

Don’t trust anybody, don’t hand out your key to any stranger!

Now take your time, learn what the Python script below does (don’t trust me or any strangers) and when you feel safe, copy the Python snippet from /u/dooglus/’s comment, save it in a text-file named complete-wif.py on a safe computer. After that take the computer offline and run the Python script by typing this into a commandline:

python3 complete-wif.py L...-your-private-key-goes-here...yhub

and it will print 2 or 3 completed WIF private keys in less than 1 second.


For reference, I appended the Python script but it’s not my work, all credits go to /u/dooglus/. I just can confirm that it does what I described above (but ask others to confirm this and try it with other private keys before you trust it with your real private key):

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import base58, sys

partial = sys.argv(1)

if len(partial) != 45:
    print("partial key should be 45 characters")

results = {}
for c in '123456789ABCDEFGHJKLMNPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijkmnopqrstuvwxyz':
    wif = base58.b58encode_check(base58.b58decode(partial + c*7)(:33) + b'x01').decode('ascii')
    if wif(:45) == partial: results(wif) = True

for k in results.keys(): print(k)

public key infrastructure – Certificate Authority generates private key for Extended Validation code signing certificate?

My company upgraded to an Extended Validation code signing security certificate, which was delivered via mail on a physical USB key, called a “token.” The token contains a private key and the digital certificate, both generated by the Certificate Authority (CA). I was surprised that the CA created the private key. It is my understanding that private keys should never be shared with a third party, including a CA. I’m used to the Certificate Signing Request (CSR) process, where a company keeps its private key private and only shares its public key.

My question: What security concerns are there with a private key being generated and initially owned by (in possession of) a Certificate Authority? Is this standard practice for EV certificates delivered on a physical token? We are told that the private key only exists on the token and there are no other copies.

Perhaps I’m missing the point. Maybe it’s more about establishing trust with a CA, and therefore we should also trust that the private key was handled correctly and that we have the only copy (E.g., why do business with them if we don’t trust them). At the same time, alerts go off because a third party had our private key. I realize that it might not be practical to create a token unless the private key is present, so maybe it’s inevitable that the CA possesses it at some point.

private $query = ""; –> syntax error, unexpected T_STRING, expecting T_OLD_FUNCTION…

Hello dear MySQL developers, i am mere user and i want to ask you if you can please let me know what is wrong in the file backend/mysql.class.php

I am asking because the script i have uploaded says this:

Line 23 is:…

private $query = ""; –> syntax error, unexpected T_STRING, expecting T_OLD_FUNCTION…

Is there any value in redacting my private IP addresses when posting network questions online?

I recently filed a bug report with Scapy, and while posting screenshots of Wireshark captures for reference, I decided to blank out my private addresses because I’m just getting into InfoSec, and am trying to be mindful of leaking potentially sensitive information:

Redacted IPs

In retrospect though, this seems overly paranoid.

I understand that private addresses aren’t routable, or unique. In theory though, if someone were to gain access to my home network illegitimately, either remotely or by getting into my router via some exploit, would not knowing what subnet all the hosts exist on realistically hinder them?

My thinking is probably no, because that information could likely be found easily; either on the infected computer used as the entry point, or by some other means.

Is there any value in hiding private IP addresses in a public setting?

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How to stop Google search, by using “noindex” and “nofollow,” from offering options to private pages on a website

I have a family history website, call it “my_family.com”. The primary file, index.php, has some introductory remarks of explanation and an html form into which one puts the website’s password (there’s a single password used by all family members). If one runs “my_family.com” and inserts the correct password and clicks on the “Submit” button, the php code in the file takes you to the first of several html files — call it “first.html,” which gives one links to further html files. All of these files contain family trees, copies of letters, photos, reminiscences, obituaries, etc., and none of which should be available to non-family-members.
I soon found out found that if one put the phrase “my_family.com” into the Google search window (whether on computer of smartphone), one got a list of options, not just a Login option but about eight to ten 3-4 word excerpts from html files on the website; and if one clicked on any of these latter options, one bypassed the password process and was taken directly to other files on the website, i.e., files that should never be publicly revealed.
What I’ve done to avoid such access is to create a cookie in the original index.php file. If the user inserts the correct password, the cookie is set to “passwordCorrect” Each subsequent html file then checks whether the cookie has that value before the user is allowed to move on
Putting in the cookies has solved the problem of public access, but nevertheless a Google search still shows the 3-4 word excerpts. I have tried to stop Google search from doing this by putting into the header section of first.html: ”” (without the outer quotes). But that has been in the file for about three weeks and has proved useless.
I tried using Google Search Console to get Google to make an early “crawl” of the file my_family.com, but am frustrated by the lack of examples about how to use it, and don’t think I succeeded. Maybe I should be asking for a crawl of the file my_family.com/first.html, instead of the basic my_family.com website? I’d appreciate any advice anyone has about this. For example, how do I determine when the last crawl was, when can I expect the next crawl, is the meta tag in the correct file, etc?

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Does a signing provider has my private key (digital signatures)

For my essay im writing about digital signatures. Lets talk about an advanced digital signature which works with PKI (private-public key infrastructure). For example, im using ValidSign or GlobalSign service to digitally sign my document, do they have my private key to sign the document, or is it on my own machine? Im trying to understand why I should upload my document to a signing provider, why cant I just sign it on my machine and send it to the receiver?

public key – Generating Bitcoin address from private key in browser console

If JavaScript is your language of choice you might be interested in bcoin – the bitcoin full node implementation and modular library written in JS. It’s designed for use in nodejs environments but can be compiled for the browser as well.

This guide in particular walks you through the process: https://bcoin.io/guides/webapp.html

Please note that web browsers are insecure environments for cryptography and especially cryptocurrency, this guide is based around public keys and testnet addresses to avoid any real risk. If you try to manage private keys in a browser’s JS environment you need to be extremely careful (use an offline computer if possible, no “chrome extensions” etc)