openssl – Length of private key ED25519 in different implementations

So there seems to be some confusion around ED25519 private keys in different implementations. Bouncy Castle and OpenSSL both generate 32-byte private keys. However, libSodium seems to want 64-byte private keys, just like ST's crypto-library (see UM1924).

So how are these systems interoperable in this regard?

.Org Registry acquired by a private equity firm

.Org registry sold to a private equity firm.

unit – Error CS1585: The member modifier & # 39; private & # 39; must precede the type and name of the member

As Casanova says, it seems like your problem is here:

public UnityStandardAssets.Characters.FirstPerson.MouseLook

// Use this for initialization 
private void Start()

Note that you have not finished writing the statement of your MouseLook field or end the line with a semicolon. The analyzer therefore calculates that the declaration must continue on one of the following lines. He continues to read, ignoring spaces and comments, until he has a complete statement. In his reading, he thinks you are trying to say this:

public UnityStandardAssets...MouseLook private void Start() { ...

… which is gibberish. This is not a valid statement in C #, so it fails to parse and tells you the first thing it found that was wrong with the statement, namely that you have private after the type, when modifiers like this must be preceded by the type. That's true, but in context, the real solution is:

public UnityStandardAssets.Characters.FirstPerson.MouseLook giveThisVariableAName;

// Use this for initialization
public void Start()

Now, there is a complete statement that the parser must find:

public      UnityStandardAssets...MouseLook    giveThisVariableAName  ;
 ^ Modifier   ^ Type                            ^ Identifier          ^ End of Line

So he analyzes the Start statement as his own separate statement, rather than trying to interpret it as a continuation of the line above.

This is a basic programming syntax error that does not require game-specific expertise. So you should always check our partner site, general programming, StackOverflow, for topics like this one. Often you will find them already answered, sometimes several times.

c # – Unit Error CS1585: The Private Member Modifier & # 39; must precede the type and name of the member

I correct errors in my script after having meticulously worked them, but this one puzzles me, even if I am sure that it is something very simple. Here is the following error:

Assets Scripts Movement_Scripts FirstPersonCharacter Scripts FirstPersonController.cs (44,9):
error CS1585: the private member modifier must precede the type of member
and name

From my script:

using UnityEngine;
using UnityStandardAssets.CrossPlatformInput;
using UnityStandardAssets.Utility;
using Random = UnityEngine.Random;
using MouseLook = UnityEngine.MouseLook;

public class FirstPersonController : MonoBehaviour
    (SerializeField) private bool m_IsWalking;
    (SerializeField) private float m_WalkSpeed;
    (SerializeField) private float m_RunSpeed;
    (SerializeField) (Range(0f, 1f)) private float m_RunstepLenghten;
    (SerializeField) private float m_JumpSpeed;
    (SerializeField) private float m_StickToGroundForce;
    (SerializeField) private float m_GravityMultiplier;
    (SerializeField) private MouseLook m_MouseLook;
    (SerializeField) private bool m_UseFovKick;
    (SerializeField) private FOVKick m_FovKick = new FOVKick();
    (SerializeField) private bool m_UseHeadBob;
    (SerializeField) private CurveControlledBob m_HeadBob = new CurveControlledBob();
    (SerializeField) private LerpControlledBob m_JumpBob = new LerpControlledBob();
    (SerializeField) private float m_StepInterval;
    (SerializeField) private AudioClip() m_FootstepSounds;    // an array of footstep sounds that will be randomly selected from.
    (SerializeField) private AudioClip m_JumpSound;           // the sound played when character leaves the ground.
    (SerializeField) private AudioClip m_LandSound;           // the sound played when character touches back on ground.

    private Camera m_Camera;
    private bool m_Jump;
    private float m_YRotation;
    private Vector2 m_Input;
    private Vector3 m_MoveDir =;
    private CharacterController m_CharacterController;
    private CollisionFlags m_CollisionFlags;
    private bool m_PreviouslyGrounded;
    private Vector3 m_OriginalCameraPosition;
    private float m_StepCycle;
    private float m_NextStep;
    private bool m_Jumping;
    private AudioSource m_AudioSource;
    readonly AudioSource AudioSource;
    public UnityStandardAssets.Characters.FirstPerson.MouseLook

        // Use this for initialization 
        private void Start()
        m_CharacterController = GetComponent();
        m_Camera = Camera.main;
        m_OriginalCameraPosition = m_Camera.transform.localPosition;
        m_HeadBob.Setup(m_Camera, m_StepInterval);
        m_StepCycle = 0f;
        m_NextStep = m_StepCycle / 2f;
        m_Jumping = false;
        m_AudioSource = GetComponent();
        m_MouseLook.Init(transform, m_Camera.transform);

        // Update is called once per frame
        private void Update()
            // the jump state needs to read here to make sure it is not missed
            if (!m_Jump)
                m_Jump = CrossPlatformInputManager.GetButtonDown("Jump");

            if (!m_PreviouslyGrounded && m_CharacterController.isGrounded)
                m_MoveDir.y = 0f;
                m_Jumping = false;
            if (!m_CharacterController.isGrounded && !m_Jumping && m_PreviouslyGrounded)
                m_MoveDir.y = 0f;

            m_PreviouslyGrounded = m_CharacterController.isGrounded;

        private void PlayLandingSound()
            m_AudioSource.clip = m_LandSound;
            m_NextStep = m_StepCycle + .5f;

        private void FixedUpdate()
            float speed;
            GetInput(out speed);
            // always move along the camera forward as it is the direction that it being aimed at
            Vector3 desiredMove = transform.forward*m_Input.y + transform.right*m_Input.x;

            // get a normal for the surface that is being touched to move along it
            RaycastHit hitInfo;
            Physics.SphereCast(transform.position, m_CharacterController.radius, Vector3.down, out hitInfo,
                               m_CharacterController.height/2f, Physics.AllLayers, QueryTriggerInteraction.Ignore);
            desiredMove = Vector3.ProjectOnPlane(desiredMove, hitInfo.normal).normalized;

            m_MoveDir.x = desiredMove.x*speed;
            m_MoveDir.z = desiredMove.z*speed;

            if (m_CharacterController.isGrounded)
                m_MoveDir.y = -m_StickToGroundForce;

                if (m_Jump)
                    m_MoveDir.y = m_JumpSpeed;
                    m_Jump = false;
                    m_Jumping = true;
                m_MoveDir += Physics.gravity*m_GravityMultiplier*Time.fixedDeltaTime;
            m_CollisionFlags = m_CharacterController.Move(m_MoveDir*Time.fixedDeltaTime);



        private void PlayJumpSound()
            m_AudioSource.clip = m_JumpSound;

        private void ProgressStepCycle(float speed)
            if (m_CharacterController.velocity.sqrMagnitude > 0 && (m_Input.x != 0 || m_Input.y != 0))
                m_StepCycle += (m_CharacterController.velocity.magnitude + (speed*(m_IsWalking ? 1f : m_RunstepLenghten)))*

            if (!(m_StepCycle > m_NextStep))

            m_NextStep = m_StepCycle + m_StepInterval;


        private void PlayFootStepAudio()
            if (!m_CharacterController.isGrounded)
            // pick & play a random footstep sound from the array,
            // excluding sound at index 0
            int n = Random.Range(1, m_FootstepSounds.Length);
            m_AudioSource.clip = m_FootstepSounds(n);
            // move picked sound to index 0 so it's not picked next time
            m_FootstepSounds(n) = m_FootstepSounds(0);
            m_FootstepSounds(0) = m_AudioSource.clip;

        private void UpdateCameraPosition(float speed)
            Vector3 newCameraPosition;
            if (!m_UseHeadBob)
            if (m_CharacterController.velocity.magnitude > 0 && m_CharacterController.isGrounded)
                //m_Camera.transform.localPosition =
                    //m_HeadBob.DoHeadBob(m_CharacterController.velocity.magnitude +
                                      //(speed*(m_IsWalking ? 1f : m_RunstepLenghten)));
                newCameraPosition = m_Camera.transform.localPosition;
                newCameraPosition.y = m_Camera.transform.localPosition.y - m_JumpBob.Offset();
                newCameraPosition = m_Camera.transform.localPosition;
                newCameraPosition.y = m_OriginalCameraPosition.y - m_JumpBob.Offset();
            //m_Camera.transform.localPosition = newCameraPosition;

        private void GetInput(out float speed)
            // Read input
            float horizontal = CrossPlatformInputManager.GetAxis("Horizontal");
            float vertical = CrossPlatformInputManager.GetAxis("Vertical");

            bool waswalking = m_IsWalking;

            // On standalone builds, walk/run speed is modified by a key press.
            // keep track of whether or not the character is walking or running
            m_IsWalking = !Input.GetKey(KeyCode.LeftShift);
            // set the desired speed to be walking or running
            speed = m_IsWalking ? m_WalkSpeed : m_RunSpeed;
            m_Input = new Vector2(horizontal, vertical);

            // normalize input if it exceeds 1 in combined length:
            if (m_Input.sqrMagnitude > 1)

            // handle speed change to give an fov kick
            // only if the player is going to a run, is running and the fovkick is to be used
            if (m_IsWalking != waswalking && m_UseFovKick && m_CharacterController.velocity.sqrMagnitude > 0)
                StartCoroutine(!m_IsWalking ? m_FovKick.FOVKickUp() : m_FovKick.FOVKickDown());

        private void RotateView()
            m_MouseLook.LookRotation (transform, m_Camera.transform);

        private void OnControllerColliderHit(ControllerColliderHit hit)
            Rigidbody body = hit.collider.attachedRigidbody;
            //dont move the rigidbody if the character is on top of it
            if (m_CollisionFlags == CollisionFlags.Below)

            if (body == null || body.isKinematic)
            body.AddForceAtPosition(m_CharacterController.velocity*0.1f, hit.point, ForceMode.Impulse);

Now I know that the problem is Private Void on line 44 and that everything I've read is in the wrong place (to be sure, I've changed it in public void, and then I l & # 39; I left empty, both generating errors). am puzzled as to or I should move Private Void too.

I appreciate all the advice on this subject.

openvpn – routing Internet traffic when connecting to an AWS VPC private subnet over a client VPN connection

I have established a VPN connection with a VPC client VPC. The VPC has only private subnets and the client VPN endpoint is associated with one of the private subnets. There is therefore no Internet access inside the subnet.

However, I still expected to be able to access the Internet while I was connected to this VPN. I thought that the connection would only add routes on my computer to the subnets associated with the VPN, so Internet traffic would always be routed through the default routes (my home router). In this way, I could always connect to private subnet resources using their private IP addresses, but connect to the Internet through my usual ISP.

I'll add that Tunnelblick warns me when I connect to the VPN:

The DNS server address is not a public IP address and is not
being routed via the VPN. is my default gateway (router), so I think this message is accurate although I'm not sure why it tells me that.

Is it possible or is it fundamentally wrong for me to work on a VPN connection to an AWS Client VPN endpoint?

bitcoind – bitcoin private key hacking

I have some non-expendable bitcoin funds in my wallet and I am looking to get the private key from the address I've tried, but keep on missing. " can you tell me if this site that I have met can do it? I had their post as below

best bitcoin investment opportunities, how to find the private key
any bitcoin address and make the funds usable. to pass no
expendable funds.

Encryption – Why does AWS distribute a private key for authentication without a password?

AWS provides access to EC2 by downloading the private key (.pem) as a management host that connects to EC2.

AWS uses openssl tool

Key providers generally provide a public key but not a private key, because with key pairs, one can encrypt with a public or private key and decrypt with another key, as shown below:

$ openssl genrsa -out mykey 2048

$ cp mykey privatekey

$ openssl rsa -in mykey -pubout -out publickey 

$ rm mykey

$ # Encrypt with public key

$ echo "the cat sat on the mat" | open ssl rsautl -encrypt -pubin -inkey publickey > ciphertxt

$ # cat cipher.txt

$ # cat cipher.txt | openssl rsautl -decrypt -inkey privatekey 

Why does AWS distribute the private key instead of the public key? for secure communication …

The key pair is primarily used to secure communication over the network, but not to authenticate the user, to access a resource in AWS.

ssh -i something.pem user@ec2-public-dns-name

How does the distribution of a key solve the authentication problem? Anyone can steal the key … Why does AWS allow the SSH connection to EC2 without a password?

private key – How to change the G base point in the Bitcoin module to generate public keys?

I want to change in the code to a G base point to generate public keys?

import bitcoin

with open("Privkey.txt","r") as f:
    content = f.readlines()
# you may also want to remove whitespace characters like `n` at the end of each line
content = (x.strip() for x in content)

outfile = open("key2pub.txt","w")
for x in content:


This script will import the Bitcoin module.
As you know, secp256k1 uses points on an elliptical curve:

Gx = 0x79be667ef9dcbbac55a06295ce870b07029bfcdb2dce28d959f2815b16f81798
Gy = 0x483ada7726a3c4655da4fbfc0e1108a8fd17b448a68554199c47d08ffb10d4b8

Now, I have to change these points for mine. Let's admit to the points:

Gx = 0xad4f5dc4a9fba25dd7ecb50b0382c29f52c8fc6826e1d5e4c347eec2010e47ed
Gy = 0xbf1e735b3a83b8bee5d60e1bd441e55b425d4b9ef3c1dca7298e829eec33ea4d

I'm just starting to program on Python 3 and I do not understand the modules
How can I change this code?

cryptography – Are private BTC keys distributed evenly in a 256-bit space?

Yes, but not for the reason that you think.

You do not start with public keys or their hashes, but you maintain that they must be uniform, which implies that private keys must also be uniform.

It is the reverse: the private keys are uniform because the algorithm for generating a private key is literally "choose a uniformly random number in this range". The fact that the public keys and their hashes are then also uniform is implicitly true for any secure scheme.

What exactly happens when I import private keys into my wallet?

I can create addresses with private keys and import those keys into my wallet to receive their unspent outings.

My question is divided into two parts:

  1. What exactly happens when you import a private key? Is this private key now stored and is the corresponding address followed by your wallet?
  2. A new transaction is signed with a private key. Therefore, if I have 1 BTC on one address and import its private key and 1 BTC on another address and import it, how can I spend 2 BTC in one transaction, what key was used to sign this new transaction?