wifi – how many network adapters does an evil twin attack require

Evil twin is an attack whereby you mimick a legitimate wireless network and try to get victims to associate to yours rather than to the legitimate one.

Conceptually, to execute the attack, all you need is one adapter. Now if you want to route traffic over another wireless network (or simply use the Internet…), you’ll need another adapter to connect to that network.

appsec – What are the types of vulnerabilities that could result in exploits that do not require user interaction?

What are the existing types of vulnerabilities that could result in exploits that do not require user interaction (e.g. zero-click)? I’m trying to understand the type of zero-click attack type for us to plan proper mitigation in code.

lens – is using a screw on ND filter along with GND filers which require a holder possible?

I have a screw on 3 – 7 stop variable ND filter which screws on to the lens.

I want to buy some GND soft grads which require a filter holder (This holder needs to screw on to the lens).

Am I right in saying that these two cannot be used at the same time as they both need to be screwed onto the lens?

I was hoping maybe the varible filter would have a thread on the outside as well as the inside so I could screw the holder onto that but I dont think that’s the case.

Is the only way to use ND and GNDs together is by slotting them into a holder?

Thank you!

8 – Composer require dev version then update to stable

Let’s say a you need a patch in a Drupal module (or core) only included in the dev version yet.

It’s already commited and should normaly be included in the next stable release.
So I’d like composer to grab the dev version for now but switch back to stable as soon as the next release is out.
Is there a way to achive this ?

Does any change in the server require a change in the console

Hi, our site was recently moved to a new server with a different IP due to upgrades and the need for more resources
Now my question is, I have already introduced the site to the console using the possibility of registering a site with Doman. Do I have to do these things again from zero to one hundred after changing the server?

Why do most HD wallets require choosing either all Segwit or all Legacy but Bitcoin Core can support both simultaneously?

Electrum and the mobile wallets I’ve used can only support one type of address per HD wallet, but Bitcoin Core can support both at the same time.

Is that simply a choice that Bitcoin Core made or is there something unique about Bitcoin Core in this case since it’s a full-node wallet?

tls – Does upgrading to TLS1.3 require Certificate update?

I currently provide solutions to customers backed by Nginx. So far I was using OpenSSL 1.0.2 which means that my Nginx can only offer TLS1.1 and TLS1.2.

In order to allow my customers to use TLS1.3 I am upgrading my OpenSSL to 1.1.1.

My question is this – will my customers have to update/upgrade their certificates if I do this? Will their existing certificates work fine and support the newer Cipher Suites offered by TLS1.3?

From whatever I have read on this forum and other places, my understanding is that the certificate is completely independent of which TLS version and which Cipher suite is used. Is that correct?

dnd 5th – Does the cast of a spell with a long cast time require the target to remain in range and line of sight all the time?

When you cast a spell with a cast time longer than an action, should the range and line of sight be maintained all the time?

For example, a cleric who casts Prayer of Healing needs the targets to be within 30 feet and in line of sight for the start of the spell, just the end, or for all of the casting time.

Some spells, like Identify or Planar Binding, explicitly mention the need to stay in range during the cast time. Other spells like Magic Circle only imply that you stay within range since the cast time represents the outline of the circle.

I am pretty confident that one actually needs to stay at least within reach. This line suggests that before a spell is cast, it remains limited by its scope:

Once a spell is cast, its effects are not limited by its scope, unless otherwise stated in the description of the spell.

I did not find a rule requiring to maintain a line of sight.

The situation at the origin of this question had an uncontrolled celestial being summoned in a magic circle. The wizard began to cast Planar Binding on it and realized that they could just enter another room while they were finishing the spell, which seemed to trivialize what could otherwise be a very difficult task.

dnd 5th – Does the hex spell require a clear path when moved to a second target?

It depends on whether your GM thinks you are targeting someone when you move hex

In Chapter 10: Spellcasting, there is the section "A clear path to the target", which says:

To target something, you need to have a clear path so that it is not behind the total coverage. […]

This applies to all instances of a spell targeting someone – but moves hex a new creature actually targets them?

In addition, the "Total Coverage" section indicates:

A target with full coverage cannot be directly targeted by an attack or spell, although some spells can hit such a target by including it in an area of ​​effect. A target has full coverage if it is completely hidden by an obstacle.

If someone is behind a window and thus has full coverage, they cannot be targeted by a spell. We meet the same question, is it hex target someone when you move them to a new creature?

The following Q / A discusses it in relation to the metamagic of the sorcerer's twin spells:

And this Q / A discusses what counts as spell targets in general:

There is a lot of debate about what counts as a target. There is a reason why the paired spell is asked so often here and it is because what counts as a target for a spell is not particularly clear. Many people disagree, so you will need to ask your general manager if hex target someone when you move it. If it is, a window will stop it.

What this GM would decide

I would say that hex target someone when you move it. You actively choose to assign a creature with the spell and for me that is enough to conclude that you are targeting it.

dnd 3.5e – Does activating a scroll require satisfying the verbal and somatic components of the spell?

The answer is no, unless the parchment is special. If a spell requires verbal or somatic components, casting it from a scroll also does so (unless the scroll is made with a silent metamagic spell)

The 3.5 DMG solves this question at the very beginning of the DMG magic objects section (213) but neglects to repeat the information in the next scrolling section (237).

From DMG

The scrolls are treated as magic objects of type Spell Completion: Spell
Completion: this is the method of activating scrolls. A scroll is a
comes out almost finished. Preparation is done for the caster,
therefore no preparation time is necessary beforehand as with normal
bewitchment. You just have to do the short, simple,
complete the parts of the spell casting (the last gestures, the words, etc.)
sure
). To use a spell completion item safely, a character must be
high enough in the right class to cast the spell already. If he
can't cast the spell already, there's a chance he'll make a mistake
(see Scrolling faults, page 238, for possible consequences). Activation
a spell completion item is a standard action and causes attacks from
opportunity just like casting a spell.