lightning network – How can I increase the routing my ‘small’ lighting node performs?

I know this question has been asked a lot. However I am not able to grasp the correct approach to address this.

Let me give you the context: I spun up an LND node to start experimenting and understanding the capabilities of this spectacular technology. Put $100 worth of sats in the node and spread it across 4 channels and I was also lucky to have another 5 channels open with me – so I have some outgoing capacity from the channels I have opened and also some inbound capacity from the channels others opened to me. The channels are unbalanced meaning that, for the channels I opened remote balance is 0 and for the channels others opened to me local balance is 0. I know that channels should be balanced to be able to perform routing in both directions in every channel but thought since others have also opened channels to me, I could still route some transactions. Is this a valid assumption?

Base fee is set to 0 and my fee rate is 0.000001 which I believe is cheap to incentivize some routing. For 4 months now fwdinghistory returns nothing. I thought that with this setup I could easily route just a cup of coffee but it seems we are not there yet.

What can I do to reach the point where I actually perform some routing? I don’t want to commit more capital to the node until I am confident of what I am doing and how things work. Again the rational behind is that 100$ should suffice to route some coffee buys. I understand that the first thing to do is to try to provide liquidity where liquidity is needed but I simply don’t understand how to identify where liquidity is needed.

java – Small text quest

This is the first small project I wanted to do for myself and make a small text adventure, i’m stuck on an error that i’ve been trying to solve but so far I haven’t gotten any solutions.

import java.util.Scanner;

public class Game {
   public static void main(String arg())
   throws InterruptedException;
   public void disply() {
      Scanner in = new Scanner(;
      System.out.println("The last thing you remember is being knocked out with a rusty pipe.");
      System.out.println("You wake up in a dark room with a locked door in front of you.");
      System.out.println("There are no items in the room.");
      System.out.println("What wil you do? n");
         "Select an Action:  n" +
         "  1) Give up and dien" +
         "  2) Slam your head and bleed out and dien" +
         "  3) Scream and alert the kidnappers to come kill youn" +
         "  4) Realize all of these options lead to death so select this to quit the text gamen"

Mini excavators: Small size, big popularity

Mini excavators are one of the quickest growing equipment types, with the machine’s popularity seemingly ever-increasing. According to data from Off-Highway Research, global sales for the mini excavator were at their highest point ever last year, at over 300,000 units.

The major markets for mini excavators have traditionally been developed countries, such as Japan and those in Western Europe, but the last decade has seen their popularity rise in many emerging economies. Most notable of these is China, which is now by far the biggest mini excavator market in the world.

Considering that mini excavators essentially replace manual labour, this is perhaps a surprising turnaround in the most populous country in the world where there is certainly no shortage of workers. Although all is perhaps not as it seems in the Chinese market – see the box out ‘China and mini excavators’ for more details.

One of the reasons for the mini excavator’s popularity is that it is easier to power a smaller and more compact machine with electricity rather than the traditional diesel power. It is the case that, especially in city centres of developed economies, there are often strict regulations regarding noise and emissions pollution.

There is no shortage of OEMs that are currently working on, or have released electric mini excavators – back in January 2019 Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE) announced that, by mid-2020, it will begin to launch a range of electric compact excavators (EC15 to EC27) and wheeled loaders (L20 to L28) and stop new diesel engine-based development of these models.

Another OEM looking at electric power for this equipment segment is JCB, with the company’s 19C-1E electric mini excavators. The JCB 19C-1E is powered by four lithium-ion batteries, providing 20kWh of energy storage. This is enough for a full working shift for the majority of mini excavator customers on a single charge. The 19C-1E itself is a powerful, compact model with zero exhaust emissions at point of use and one that is considerably quieter than a standard machine.

Small machine is a relatively light and fast mechanical equipment. Like hand-held power tools, concrete vibrator, frog tamper, mini transporter, woodworking machinery, steel machinery, mini dumper, motorized dump truck, welding, etc. are all small machines.
In addition to large machinery and equipment in construction should pay attention to the safe use, to prevent injury, a variety of medium and small machines also have different degrees of danger, must be used in accordance with the safety requirements.

Going electric

JCB recently sold two models to London-based J Coffey Plant, with Coffey Plant Division Operations Manager Tim Rayner commenting, “The major benefit is no emissions at point of use. Our workers are not subjected to diesel emissions when using the 19C-1E. Confined areas are now clearer and safer to work in too, as there is no longer a need for emissions control equipment such as extraction units and ducting. The JCB electric minis bring value to the business and the industry as a whole.”

Another OEM looking at electric power is Kubota. “In recent years mini excavators powered by alternative fuel sources – such as electric – have seen a surge in popularity,” says Glen Hampson, business development manager construction at Kubota UK.

“The main driver behind this is that electric equipment gives the operator the ability to work in regulated low emission zones. Electric machinery can also enable work to be carried out in confined spaces underground without producing harmful emissions. It’s reduced noise output also makes it great for construction work in urban or heavily populated environments.”

Kubota launched a prototype electric compact mini excavator in Kyoto City, Japan, at the start of the year and Hampson adds, “At Kubota, our main priority will always be the development of machines that match the needs of our customers – the development of electric machines will allow us to do just this.”

Bobcat recently announced that it was launching a new R-Series mini excavators from 2-4 tonne with a new range of five compact excavator models: the E26, E27z, E27, E34 and E35z. One of the standout features for this range is said by the company to be the Cylinder-Inside-Boom (CIB) design concept.

According to Miroslav Konas, product manager, Bobcat Excavators Europe, Middle East and Africa (EMEA), “The CIB system aims to overcome what has been one of the weakest points in any mini-excavator – the vulnerability of the boom cylinder to damage such as that caused by colliding with the sides of trucks and other vehicles when loading waste and building materials.

“It does this by enclosing the hydraulic cylinder inside an extended boom structure, thus avoiding collisions with the top of the blade and the sides of vehicles. In fact, the boom structure protects the hydraulic boom cylinder in any position of its movement.”

Wood chipper is a kind of special equipment for producing wood chips, wood chipper is also called wood slicer, which is one of the wood processing series equipment.

Trenching machine, such as mini trencher, is one of the main types of construction machinery, a kind of trenching machinery used in earthwork construction, widely used in agricultural water conservancy construction, laying of communication cables and petroleum pipelines, municipal construction and military engineering, etc.

Useful tools and machines in home agriculture also include log splitter, stump grinder, etc.

Operator comfort

With the lack of skilled operators in the industry, keeping those behind the stick happy has never been more important. Volvo CE claim that the new 6-tonne ECR58 F generation compact excavator has the most spacious cab in the industry.

Operator well-being, confidence, and safety are supported through a simplified workstation and user-friendly experience. The seat-to-joystick position has been revised and improved, while still being suspended together – a technic that Volvo CE says it introduced to the industry.

Designed to offer the highest levels of operator convenience, the cab features soundproofing, numerous storage areas, and 12V and USB ports. A fully opening front window and slide side window contribute to all-around visibility and operators have an automotive style jog wheel, five inch colour display and easy-to-navigate menus.

Operator comfort is indeed important, but another reason for the general popularity of the mini excavator segment is the ever-increasing range of attachments on offer. For instance, Volvo CE’s ECR58 has a wide range of attachments which are easy to switch over, including buckets, breakers, thumbs, and the new Tilt Quick Coupler.

Talking about the mini excavator’s rise in popularity, Chris Sleight, managing director, Off-Highways Research, highlights attachments, saying, “At the lighter end, the range of attachments available mean it (a mini excavator) is often favoured over workers using hand-held air-powered tools. This is partly because this can be helpful in reducing workers’ exposure to noise and vibration, and also because it removes the worker from the immediate vicinity of the tool.”

Sleight also adds that, “In Europe and even North America the mini excavator is replacing other types of equipment. At the top end of the scale, its smaller footprint and ability to slew through 360 degrees means it is often now favoured over backhoe loaders.”

Bobcat’s Konas agrees with the importance of attachments, saying, “The various types of bucket we offer are still the main ‘tool’ from among the 25 different families of attachments we offer for our mini excavators, but we see a trend developing with more advanced hydraulic attachments growing in popularity. That’s why we developed our A-SAC system, which together with up to five independent auxiliary circuits available on our machines, we believe makes Bobcat the most advanced brand on the market to operate such complex attachments.

“Combining the arm-mounted hydraulic auxiliary lines and the optional A-SAC technology together enables a wide choice of machine customisation options to match any attachment requirement, further enhancing the role of these excavators as excellent tool carriers.”

Remote monitoring as a growing trend?

Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe) has published a white paper on the future of the compact equipment segment in Europe. In it they point out that 70% of the mini excavators sold in Europe are under three tonnes, helped by the fact that it is relatively straightforward to obtain a licence to tow one of these models on a trailer with a regular driving licence.

The White Paper predicts that remote monitoring will play an increasingly important role in the compact construction equipment market, of which mini excavators are an important part. The report says, “Tracking the location of compact equipment is particularly important, given that it moves frequently from one job site to another.

“Location and working hours data can therefore help owners, especially rental companies, with planning, enhancing efficiency and scheduling maintenance. Accurate location information is also vital from a security point of view – it’s much easier to steal a smaller machine than a larger model, and theft of compact equipment is therefore more commonplace.”

Different manufacturers offer various telematics packages with their mini excavators and mini roller; there is no industry standard. Hitachi mini excavators are connected to its remote monitoring system, Global e-Service, and the data can also be accessed via smartphone.

While location and working hours are key bits of information, the report speculates that the next-generation of equipment owners will want to view more detailed data. “Owners want access to more data from manufacturers. One reason for this is the influx of a younger, more tech-savvy generation of customers, who can better understand and analyse data to improve productivity and efficiency.”

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Small JavaScript function that mimics flag handling of the command line

I am writing a function that I would use to handle parameters with options for use later in another project.

A sample input would be similar to this:

foo bar --baz con str --w=1920 --h=1080

From the example above I would expect foo and bar to be not part of any flag and baz would contain con and str and w with the value of 1920 and h with 1080:

baz = (con, str)
w   = 1920
h   = 1080

This getFlags function would take a string and perform the “flag” logic that I had in mind.

const getFlags = (str) => {
  const prefix = '--';

  const strArray = str
    .replaceAll(/s+/ig, ' ')
    .split(' ');

  let flagArray = {
    _noFlag: {
      values: (),

  let lastArg = '';
  strArray.forEach((arg) => {
    if (arg.startsWith(prefix) && arg.length > prefix.length) {
      noPrefixFlag = arg.slice(prefix.length);

      if (noPrefixFlag.includes('=')) {
        const pair = noPrefixFlag.split('=');
        flagArray(pair(0)) = {
          values: (pair(1)),
        lastArg = '';
      } else {
        lastArg = noPrefixFlag;
        flagArray(lastArg) = {
          values: (),

    } else if (lastArg) {
    } else {

  return flagArray;

It works as I expect it, but I feel like this function can be improved.

lo.logic – Can every true type be reached from the unit type in small steps?

We are playing a game where you start at the unit type and the goal is to reach a given true type.

You can go from your current location to another by writing down a (non-dependent) function of length at most 1000 (the lambda type annotation is not counted in the length).

Can you reach any true type in a finite number of steps?

1000 is pretty arbitrary; it would be interesting to see an analysis for any limit. The type system is Martin-Löf or HoTT.


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Are there (small, pod) hotels for single people in Western countries?

While this doesn’t expressly address the “are there single traveler, pod-type hotels in the US?”, it does offer a solution that the pod-type hotel would – lower cost.

The cost of the hotel room in a particular city (in the US, at least) is dictated a couple of factors:

  1. The “chain” or brand of hotel you’re booking.

    Hilton is more expensive that Motel 6. Always and forever.

  2. The location of the hotel.

    Downtown is more expensive than the suburbs. Generally. Some suburbs have a large business sector and are more upscale than others.

The general concept is that business travelers aren’t paying for their own room, so they’re less cost sensitive (hey, the company’s paying, might as well have a nice place, right?), but they’re highly convenience sensitive (I don’t have time to travel from the work place to a cheap place in the ‘burbs, especially after wining & dining a potential client until late in the evening). Additionally, the business traveler may not have private transportation (a rental/hire car) and be fully dependent on public transport and/or simply walking from the work site to the hotel. (I was in that situation for a new job – working remote, but spent a week onsite to meet people – my hotel was literally across the street from the work site.)

However, individual travelers on vacation/visiting family/etc. are paying for their own room so they’re more price sensitive and less convenience sensitive.

If you need to visit NYC, consider staying across the river in NJ. Hotel rooms will be cheaper (even for the same brand) because location, location, location! You’ll pay for it, though, in additional travel time, cost and inconvenience in having to get in and out of the city each day you need to make the trip. This is exactly what my wife & I did when we visited my family in Manhattan with our young kids a decade or so ago. We stayed in Jersey and made an adventure of traveling into the city each day so it was fun for them. We took the tunnel, we took different bridges, etc. As a family on vacation, we could do that. As a business traveler, that would have been a nightmare.

Generally speaking, you’re going to get the same quality and amenities by choosing a suburb Hilton v a downtown Hilton (substitute Motel 6, if desired), but you’re going to pay less the further away from the city center you go.

nikon – how to find best FX camera to avoid diffraction at small apertures

This is only possible by a system that corrects for the effects of diffraction in post-processing. For example Canon’s Digital Lens Optimizer can somewhat negate the effects of diffraction. I’m not sure if similar features are available for Nikon.

The problem here is that by fixing the sensor size to full frame (36mm x 24mm) and by fixing the resolution to some high value, and by wanting to use a small aperture, you are creating conditions that invariably cause diffraction. No lens is going to eliminate it. No camera body is going to eliminate it.

The only ways you can reduce the effect are:

  • Reduce the amount of diffraction using sophisticated algorithms in post processing
  • Use a lower resolution
  • Use a bigger aperture, however that creates shallower depth of field
  • Use a bigger format sensor, however that not only costs a lot but also creates a shallower depth of field, unless you use a higher aperture f-number in which case you are back where you started with respect to diffraction and depth of field, but you definitely are not back where you started with respect to total system cost

Focus stacking might also help if your subject doesn’t move and you can take multiple pictures using a tripod from the same position.

By the way, for landscape photography this is not a problem. For example 50 megapixels with full frame mean f/8 is the limit where diffraction becomes visible. However this means diffraction when pixel peeping, not diffraction when viewing a reasonable size of print from a reasonable distance. If you print a 1 meter sized picture that is viewed from 1 meter distance, a circle of confusion calculator gives 0.008 mm circle of confusion with perfect vision. With this circle of confusion, if you focus 40 meters away on a 50mm lens, anything from 20 meters away to infinity is in focus with f/8. And you have room to use for example f/16 if you want some nearby tree to be in perfect focus — the f/16 diffraction would probably not be visible in a 1 meter sized picture viewed from 1 meter distance with perfect vision, it would be visible only when pixel peeping. This f/16 would allow anything from 10 meters to infinity to be in focus.

unity – Why addForce creating some small movement in my game object?

I’m working in a project with Unity 2d where player walks on a small planet. I try to use some code from youtube tutorial to apply gravity to my planet.This code consists of two parts, Attractable and Attractor. Attractables are used on objects that are drawn and Attractors placed on planets. When I try to play it it works, but when my player is idle, my player get pull toward the bottom of the planet.

enter image description here

in Attractor script, it just find all object inside Circle area with Physics2D.OverlapCircleAll and then call Attract function from object with Attractable script. The Attractor code look like this:

    void Update()

    void FixedUpdate()

    void SetAttractedObjects()
        AttractedObjects = Physics2D.OverlapCircleAll(planetTransform.position, effectionRadius, AttractionLayer).ToList();// can be optimized

    void AttractObjects()
        for (int i = 0; i < AttractedObjects.Count; i++)

And inside the Attractable script, it has Attract function, that apply some force to object rigidbody. This is the function called from the previous Attractor script. This code apply force from rigidbody position to the position of the planet.

public void Attract(Attractor artgra)
        Vector2 attractionDir = (Vector2)artgra.planetTransform.position - m_rigdibody.position;
        m_rigdibody.AddForce(attractionDir.normalized * -artgra.gravity * force * Time.fixedDeltaTime);
        if (currentAttractor == null) 
            currentAttractor = artgra;


This script also has, a RotateToCenter function which ensures the player is always facing the planet. This function is called from the Update function.

void RotateToCenter() 
        Vector2 distanceVector = (Vector2)currentAttractor.planetTransform.position - (Vector2)m_transform.position;

        float angle = Mathf.Atan2(distanceVector.y, distanceVector.x) * Mathf.Rad2Deg;
        m_transform.rotation = Quaternion.AngleAxis(angle + 90,Vector3.forward);

I try to use Debug.DrawLine to see the AttractionDir variable from Attract function, and i get:

I think it’s the correct force vector because it applies the force from my player position to the center of my planet the way I want it. But my player always move a bit to the bottom of the planet. I tried to remove my RotateToCenter function, and my player doesn’t pull down anymore, but it also causes my player to not move as it should. I try to reduce the force, but my player still moved. So i try to increse the force and my player moves faster. I get confused, because i think the force direction is from my player rigidbody position to the planet center(it should only pull my player to the planet not moved it), so why my player moved by this force. I also set rigidbody gravity to 0 so it doesn’t effect my player but i still get the small movement. Why is this happening? Anyone know how to solve it?