With which specifications do you build your new dedicated servers?

With which specifications do you build your new dedicated servers?

requires good accommodation (specifications inside)

I would like to get 2 TB of disk space. Linux.
Support for Os Commerce. EU / US server location
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Are there industry standards or specifications regarding the resistance of image sensors to the damage caused by intense light?

The standard closest to a standard that I could find came from looking for filters in the front of the lens for solar photography, ie, say filters for use with telescopes (or telephoto lenses) specially designed to take pictures of the sun in white light.

For visual solar observation, the standard is ND5.0. Baader Planetarium also offers an ND3.8 version for use in high magnification (NON visual) imaging, and the Wikipedia entry for neutral density filters contains the following note:

Note: ND 3.8 is the correct value for exposure to solar CCD without risk of electronic damage.

But do not have a quote to explain where the number comes from.

On the other hand, there is a clear conflict between this and the daily experience with non-SLR digital cameras. It is not unusual to have the sun in the plane – either intentionally or during framing – and yet we do not have any traces burned through the sensor.

Part of the explanation may be due to the fact that mainstream cameras have integrated infrared blocking filters for color balance (unlike many astronomical CCDs). Another
a part can be that many point cameras use relatively small lenses – so as not to capture as much heat and light as a telescope,
which usually have lenses or mirrors several inches in diameter.

In addition, with conventional photography, at least for freehand shooting, you usually take a few seconds at a time, often moving as you frame the shot – so you normally not much time for the heat to increase. If you compare this with solar imaging, where you normally follow the sun for several minutes (or sometimes a few hours), with a much larger lens / mirror (and thus capturing more light / heat), you can see why a filter becomes more important.

With a total solar eclipse in the United States, it is probably worthwhile to add a safety warning regarding visual filters. You only have one eye, so do not take chances – use only filters specifically designed for solar use. Do not try to improvise from exposed films, CDs or others. Visual performance is not a safe guide to performance at invisible IR / UV wavelengths. The appropriate sunscreens are relatively inexpensive – a few dollars for a portable device that you can look at with the naked eye,
or $ 20 to $ 30 for a solar filter film sheet, or you can get predefined filters (the ND5.0 visual quality filters are also suitable for photography).

and as specified by Wikipedia's ND filter entry:

Note: ND 5.0 ​​is the minimum required for direct solar observation in the eyes without retinal injury. An additional check must be made for the particular filter used, checking on the spectrogram that the UV and IR values ​​are also attenuated with the same value.

Specially designed sunscreens are safe. Others are unknown and are not worth risking your sight.

sensor – burnout LIDAR; standards, specifications or even guidelines on thermal damage caused by infrared lasers?

In the BBC News article, a laser-damaged camera in an unmanned car describes a situation in which a particularly powerful infrared laser emitted by the LIDAR of a prototype car at CES damaged the camera's sensor from a photographer.

Question: Are there standards, specifications or even guidelines in the sensor or camera manufacturing industries for thermal damage due to intense light sources?

  • If a LIDAR manufacturer wanted to be responsible and put in place a system that he thought would probably not damage security cameras and traffic cameras up and down the street, could he turn around? to information or limit the laser emission? Maybe a maximum radiance value in each of several ranges of wavelengths?

  • Or if a camera manufacturer wanted to be responsible and build a camera that probably could not be damaged by a car, robot or other LIDAR system?

  • Or if a LIDAR was part of the display of another product (such as a car or a robot), but it may not be obvious to all members of the public that IR lasers are involved, and screen owners wanted to know what laser level could justify including a warning on the cameras?

Until now, answers to the question Are there industry standards or specifications regarding the resistance of image sensors to the damage caused by intense light?
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are basically "no", but outdoor photography is so ubiquitous that the experience is plentiful.

Now, however, infrared laser beams in the eyes are something new and different, and they are invisible. So we do not necessarily know that we are photographing a laser until the point does not appear in the photo.

As I understand it, these LIDAR systems use wavelengths that are absorbed in the front of the eye and never pass through the lens and focus on a small dot on the retina. An anti-IR filter on the lens You can alleviate the problem, but an infrared blocking filter on the sensor near the fireplace can melt and break down for the obvious reason that it absorbs energy that is now focused on a small point.

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The lidar system at the top of the demo car

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The purple dots and lines on this picture of the Stratosphere Hotel in Las Vegas show the damage caused by …

Ms. Nazer added that for the cameras to be immune to high power laser beams, they needed an optical filter that removes infrared invisible to humans. However, this can affect night vision, when the infrared can be a benefit.

"AEye is known for its lidar units whose range is much longer than that of their competitors, ranging from 1 km to 200 m or 300 m," she said.

"In my opinion, AEye should not use their powerful fiber laser during shows."

frameworks – International specifications for multi-agent systems (MAS)

Have a good day!

I wonder if anyone (perhaps a company) is using international specifications in MAS development for architecture or communications, for example FIPA specifications.

I ask them this because FIPA seems to be dead (recent specification published in 2012, no update of site-info, the list of available platforms is corrupt).

Also, I need this information for my dessert, give some sources, if you want it.

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iso – How to guess the specifications of a movie?

In an attempt to identify the type of "mystery film" I bought and mentioned here, I would like to do some tests.

1 – Can I take multiple pictures on the same roll with a different ISO setting on the camera, then see which one stands out the best? (Or should I shoot whole rolls with different ISO settings?)

2 – Is there a way to "guess" whether it's color or black-and-white by trying different settings in the camera?

The first roll that I shot was treated in black and white and came out very contrasted. I liked the results, but I am curious to try to test the film because I often buy unbranded / unlabeled movies.

Sony a7RIII vs Sony a7RII: specifications and prices

I'm thinking of buying a Sony a7RII or a7RIII and I'm just curious to know that the price of an a7RII is about 2/3 of a7RIII. Is the a7RIII really worth this supplement?
Is it much better?