operating systems – page table size in a 1 and 2 levels page table

Consider that virtual page numbers are 36 bits, and page table entries, as well as pointers to other page tables are 4 bytes each.
First , if we need to calculate how much memory would a single level page table require , my answer is that we have 2^36 pages and since every page entry is 4 byte , therefore the answer will be (2^36)*4 bytes. Is that right ?

Secondly , can someone help me to calculate how much memory would a two level page table require and assume the bits are divided evenly between the two levels?

My VMware Windows (and other Operating Systems) are WAY too slow

My VMware Windows (and other Operating Systems) are WAY too slow even if I give it the max RAM and CPU cores as possible… I’ve tried giving it more than it’s supposed to have… I usually run like WIN95 and WIN98 on it but I’d never get as far as the OS GUI… But sometimes I just give it less than it’s supposed to have… All help is appreciated (/^▽^)/!

Operating Systems – Page Table – Address Translation – Physical Address & Logical Address

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I am learning about memory management in operating systems. I am confused with Address Translation. In this question (pic attached), can anyone explain, how the answer is obtained for Blank #2? What are the steps? Thanks in advance

history of gaming – What are examples of systems with explicit fluff/crunch distinctions?

I find myself involved in discussions frequently where one person will claim that a piece of text in a rulebook is “just fluff” or “pure flavor” and can be “refluffed” by the players with little or no DM oversight, while others are “mechanics” or “crunch” that requires a house-rule to change.

Specifically, the things cited as “fluff” are those that do not have an attached dice roll or explicit benefit/penalty listed. Things like the descriptions of classes, feats or spells/other abilities. On the other hand, “mechanics” or “crunch” includes rule text that has direct, explicit application to the game world, especially when expressed in pseudo-mathematical form (such as dice rolls, damage, or bonuses and penalties).

I know that 4e had a specific rule that said that descriptive text in italics in an ability entry or elsewhere was just an example (ie fluff) and could be changed at will. But I’m pretty sure that this distinction pre-dates 4e–I remember hearing it invoked to justify taking prestige classes (3.5e) completely out of context and apply them without satisfying the “fluff” prerequisites (such as meeting/being trained by someone of the appropriate faction).

What other systems (and if so, which ones are the earliest) have this distinction explicitly in the ruleset? Ideal answers would have citations or quotations to where that’s defined in the rules. I’m not interested in a full (unbounded) list of systems, but rather the earliest examples of such. And exact wording (“fluff”) isn’t important, but the rule text must explicitly set certain portions of the ruleset as being able to be changed by players without DM (if any such role exists in the system) intervention.

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operating systems – A question about object files

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ds.dynamical systems – Angles of stable/unstable disks in hyperbolic product structure

We say that a compact set $Lambda$ in manifold $M$ has a hyperbolic product structure

if there exist a continuous family of unstable disks ${gamma^u}$ and a continuous family of stable disks ${gamma^s}$ such that

(i) $dim gamma^u + dim gamma^s = dim M$;
(ii) the $gamma^u$-disks are transversal to the $gamma^s$-disks with the angles between them bounded away from 0;
(iii) each $gamma^u$-disk meets each $gamma^s$-disk in exactly one point; and
(iv) $Lambda = (cup gamma^u)∩(cup gamma^s)$.

My question is about the condition (ii) which appears in many papers: why the angles between stable disk and unstable disk are uniformly bounded away from 0? If zero, what happened to SRB measure on $M$?

Thank you in advance!

elasticsearch – systems requirement planning

I am running Ubuntu server 20.04 LTS in a VM hosted on a NAS (Synology.) Primary purpose of this system is to ingest data for ELK. This is the master node.

Configuration is:

  1. Compute: Intel Celeron J3455 (4 cores allocated to the VM.) 1.5 (base) / 2.3 (burst) GHz
  2. Memory: 4 GB DDR3.
  3. Storage: 7200 RPM drive.

Virtualisation is propitiatory to Synology.

Following is the systems usage:

htop image

iostats image

I am planning to move this from the NAS to a workstation running:

  1. VMWare ESXi (free)
  2. Compute: Intel Xeon W 1290 with 10 cores (20 threads) with 3.20 GHz base and 5.20 GHz Turbo frequency.
  3. Memory: 64 GB DDR4 RAM @ 2933 MHz
  4. Storage: 7200 RPM drive + PCIe M.2 SSD (Dell Class 40)

I am a self-funded student and I need to use this system as part of my final year perusing masters in software and systems security. I wanted assistance calculating systems requirements if the load on the system remains consistent. I am using Elasticsearch stack on this system. I am facing following issues:

  1. System load is always over 4.0 is this due to IOPs issue? If so, will adding RAM during migration to another system help? Or does this require faster storage such as an SSD?
  2. Will providing following configuration help situation load and improve performance without over provisioning?

Compute: 3 processors x 2 cores per processor = 6
Storage will be local (SATA, 7200 RPM NAS grade drive.)

What steps should I take to ensure I am not over provisioning and able to use the system for other projects too?

Thank you.

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