terminology – What is the difference between a 3D camera and a stereo camera?

No, "3D camera" is not the same as "stereo camera".

A stereo camera takes two images at the same time (either via two separate lens / sensor sets, or via a mirror system to split the frame of a single set into two views). The two images produced by these cameras are regular images; they don't make one for the image and one for the depth map.

Such a camera (image + depth) is possible, but it is another type of 3D camera, not a "stereo" camera (they are sometimes called "depth camera", but this label can also be applied to a camera that does not produce depth maps without producing an image).

Some other 3D cameras use more than two lenses. You will find that these almost always use film rather than a digital sensor. These are sometimes confusedly called stereoscopic multi-view cameras (stereo meaning two and multi here means more than two), but also sometimes called lenticular cameras, since the production of lenticular prints is their main use. (Lenticular prints using more than two images have a better 3D effect because you can tilt the print to "look around" in the scene.) Eg. the Nishika 8000

With a depth camera, you can produce synthetic images of views close to the raw image, which allows you to create stereo images or multi-view images (also suitable for lenticular prints, or simply to move them 3D images .gif). This process struggles with the translucency and reflections of the image. Since these entities are the result of sources at more than one depth at a given pixel location, they cannot be correctly captured by a single image and a single depth map.

Stereo cameras (dual view) handle transparency and reflection very well, but you will only have to be content with stereo images (or apply post processing to synthesize a depth map)

documentation – Correct terminology for Windows: keyboard preferences

This is a UX / documentation issue associated with a Windows issue "what is it"; I hope this is the right place to post it, I could not find a documentation-focused stackexchange site.

In my documentation for my multiplatform application (OSX / MacOS and Win10), I try to explain how these operating systems consume various keys before reaching the application; this affects keyboard shortcuts that can be finalized at the application level. Each operating system will do it differently (and then there are the CMD key vs Ctrl and similar menu invocations.) Additionally, the user can override some of these things (at least on Mac .. (more on that below.) So this is something I want to cover.

My app can map any internal function to any key combination that does it; but what key combinations Actually Achieving it varies depending on the keyboard you have, the operating system you use, and still at least on a Mac, depending on what user keyboard preferences are also set.

So under OS X / MacOS, I'm referring to the Keyboard Preferences to point them to the standard user settings of the operating system that they might want to review and / or modify if they want to change the key combinations that are actually available at the operating level application. I am mainly an OS X / MacOS user, and I am sure I am using the correct terminology out there, as well as pointing them to the appropriate installations.

But I'm running out of ways – ideally as concise – to refer the user to an equally practical Windows preferences function so that he "gets it" at first reading. I found this, which seems to imply that there is no such installation, standard … but I can't find an integrated way to handle such things, so maybe being that kind of search and add-in facility is all there is?

If there is East such a standard thing, where the hell is it? And what would it be called?

typing flow

terminology – What must a "program" contain to make it a "program"?

This is not IMO an "IT" affair. A "program" necessarily expresses itself in a particular programming language, whether it is a programming language with a computer implementation or a "simple" formalism logic.

The particular language will tell you what a program is. Which means it's a dirty implementation problem, not a blank question of science. (I'm a bad villain so I agree with that).

For example, for Algol 60

 ::=  | 

and therefore (if you continue the definitions), the minimal program Algol 60 is only a pair of instruction brackets:

to start end

On the contrary, in Algol 68 as far as I can remember, a particular program must be a block, so a declaration is necessary:

to start int k end

Your implementer may add additional requirements.

terminology – What exactly are the calculation effects?

I am really confused with the definition of calculation effects. What I knew and understood about the calculating effect, it was only that it was an impure calculation, but somebody was a bad one. ; noticed that the calculation effects include the continuation which does not seem to be impure. please someone reason these things.

Sorry to babble, here are my real questions:

  1. What is the formal (or at least precise) definition of calculation effects?

  2. If the calculating effects are unclean things, then why is the pursuit included? is the result impure?


terminology – Is Drupal an SDK, a framework or both?

When I read about creating server environments for a Drupal application, I often come across the terms Cloud and SDK, to develop software on "cloud" server environments.

As I can indeed develop software on a "cloud" server environment with Drupal, I ask:

Is Drupal an SDK, a framework or both?
Maybe "SDK" and "framework" should be used interchangeably in this case?

terminology – How to explain the focal distance to someone who is not a photography lover?

Without going into the formulas, I think the easiest way to visually explain the focal length is to use an empty 35mm slide as a framing guide. (Note that over time, less and less people know what a 35mm film slide looks like, so the visual guide is less apt …)

First of all, you need to explain that focal length is a property of the lens. Just like a milk jug can hold 1 or 1/2 gallon or 1 liter, or a certain bottle of water can hold 1/2 liter, so any particular lens has a particular focal length. (In this analogy, zoom lenses are like collapsible water bottles, which have a certain minimum volume when folded down and a maximum volume when folded down). Just like volume is a property of this particular bottle, the focal length is therefore a property of this particular lens.

(Note: I didn't have to use a bottle volume for analogy. I could have used the height of the bottle as easily as the property. It doesn’t matter – it’s just an analogy)

Extending the analogy, it doesn't matter if the bottle is full, half full or empty – the capacity of the bottle is fixed. Just like with a lens: it doesn't matter if it's focused far or near – the focal distance of the lens is unchanged.

Related: What is the focal length and how does it affect my photos?

Now back to the cameras. Different focal lenses modify field of view when mounted on a certain camera. Conversely, when mounting different cameras (with different film or sensor sizes) on a particular lens, the field of vision is also affected.

Here is where the 35mm slide comes in when explaining to people: for a lens with a focal length ƒ (say, 50mm), if it was mounted on a film camera 35 mm (those that most people using film cameras know), then you will get the same field of vision just as you hold a 35mm film slide at a distance of ƒ (50mm, or about 2 inches, in this case) in front of your eye.

Another example: early in the evening of a full moon night, when the moon is low on the horizon and it looks impressive, if you want to capture it in full glory, imagine holding a empty 35 mm slide at arm's length (about 3 feet or or about 900 mm) to frame the moon. When framed with a slide holder at this distance, the moon will fill about 1/3 the height of the frame. So that gives you an idea of ​​the viewing angle of a 900mm lens on a 35mm film camera (or a 35mm full frame DSLR).

Related: What Focal Length Lens Do I Need To Photograph The Moon?

Now if you are talking about a camera with a smaller sensor, such as a 1.5 or 1.6 APS-C crop sensor on entry level DSLRs and mid-range, a 35mm film slide holder no longer works. The framing tool should be 1.5 times smaller. In this case, it would be 24 x 16 mm. Using the smaller "1.5 APS-C slider holder" as a framing guide, you can place it at the focal distance of the lens ƒ from your eye to judge the size of the field of view .

Related: Does My Crop Sensor Camera Really Turn My Lenses Into A Longer Focal Length?

This is the simplest way I have found to explain and visualize the focal distance, without delving into math with the formula of the thin lens and the formula of the angle pinhole vision.

information architecture – What is the correct terminology to describe a page / view representing a business concept?

In the context of an information system, what is the correct terminology to refer to the views of business concepts?

For example, given the StackExchange system, what is the correct name for pages on a question, topic, user, etc. Basically, the most important "information concepts" in the field. I consider them as the central elements of information architecture.

Possible names: "information unit", "display", "main page", simply "page"?

terminology – trace vs calculation vs run

Many people use the terms "trace", "run", "compute", "run", "walk" … interchangeably when talking about state machines with labeled transitions. Do studies distinguish these concepts? For example, whose work says that XXX is a sequence of states, YYY is a sequence of labels and ZZZ is a sequence of states and labels between them, for two different pairs XXX, YYY, ZZZ in {trace, execution, computation, run, walk, …}?

Here, a state machine is simply an ingrained directed graph (where arbitrarily many roots are allowed, which are interpreted as initial states) with edges labeled by letters of a fixed alphabet.

terminology – Is the Turing machine a scientific theory in CS or math or an "idea of ​​practical engineering"?

The English Wikipedia article on the Turing machine opens with:

A Turing machine is a mathematical model of calculation that defines
an abstract machine, (1)

As a Hebrew speaker, I read a similar explanation in Hebrew Wikipedia:

היא מודל חישובי מתמטי אשר באמצעותו ניתן לתאר באופן מופשט את פעולתו של
מחשב (כולל מחשב מודרני)

My problem

I understand this term as reflecting a theory in CS or mathematics, but it is interesting to note that none of the first two sentences presented this concept as scientific theory in CS or Math.

My question

Is Turing's Machine a Scientific Theory in CS or Mathematics or an "Idea of ​​Practical Engineering"?

Update – valuable comments that could be deleted:

user:Yuval Filmus wrote:

Turing machines are a mathematical abstraction. They are neither
scientific theory nor a practical engineering idea (real computers
are much better modeled using a different abstraction, RAM machines).
The relevant scientific theory is the Church-Turing thesis.

I answered:

Hello Yuval and thank you; please share your position on the presentation
mathematical models as "scientific theories" in the sense that these
can be falsified in principle and have one or more reinforcements and
somewhat plausible respectively; or i'm wrong because in math this
The Popperian meaning "doesn't hold water" and something is true or
not true.