## logic – How is the conditional "if .. then .." true when the antecedent is false?

I think it's a bit counterintuitive .. if I say, "if cats fly, I'm a dog" or "if cats fly, I'm a human" how is that true? My book says:

Must it simply be said that in these circumstances these statements are neither true nor false? The consequences are significant. We will have to sacrifice our characterization of deductive validity. Sacrificing this standard definition of deductive validity is a radical decision, but some logicians recommend it.

But I still do not understand why and how it is the standard definition of deductive validity

## linear algebra – The reverse of the statement is true?

Two linear systems using the same set of variables are equivalent if
each of the equations of the second system can be derived
algebraically from the equations of the first system, and vice versa.
Two systems are equivalent if the two are incompatible or if each
the equation of each of them is a linear combination of the equations of
L & # 39; other.

It follows that two linear systems are equivalent if and only if they
have the same set of solutions.

## Difference between true and false in the header (& # 39; Location: & # 39;) in PHP

The true and falsewhich changes is the Replace, according to the documentation:

header ( string $header (, bool$replace = TRUE (, int $http_response_code )) ) : void  What matters to us is the definition of $replace:

Replace:
The optional replacement parameter specifies whether the header should replace a previous similar header or add a second header of the same type. By default, it will replace, but if you pass FALSE as the second argument, you can force multiple headers of the same type.

When he is true (and is the default), it will replace the header, while if it is also false the value will not be replaced, for example:

header('Location: https://google.com');


This should result in a single header. Location: https://bing.com, because the https://bing.com replace the https://google.com. However, if you are like false:

header('Location: https://google.com', false);


This should present the two headers, not just the last one. This is because the false will not replace.

However, Location cannot appear more than once in the same header. At least in RFC 7230:

A sender MUST NOT generate multiple header fields with the same field
name in a message, unless the value of the entire field for this
the header field is defined as a comma separated list (i.e. # (values))
or the header field is a well-known exception (as shown below).

The Location These are not exceptions and cannot be listed. Already the Set-Cookies This is an exception, for example. The WWW-Authenticate It is a list, so it can also be divided into several individual headers. Considering the Set-Cookies, being common, in the same request can receive several Set-Cookies in the same header. So this would be a scenario where you would use the false in header(), because if you use true (default) only one Set-Cookie exist.

## dnd 5th – Can I use weapons and ancient abilities when True Polymorphed into an ancient brass dragon and then use Change Shape to return to the humanoid?

Thank you for responding to the role-playing battery swap!

• Make sure you respond to the question. Give details and share your research!

But to avoid

• Make statements based on opinion; save them with references or personal experience.

Use MathJax to format the equations. Reference MathJax.

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## dnd 5e – What happens when you break an object made by True Polymorph?

Is there an official decision as to what happens when an item made by True Polymorph is broken?

Situation:

The real polymorph is launched on a human, which makes it a branch.
One hour passes, making the effect permanent.
The Twig is broken in half.

Is the Twig becoming the Human it was before the spell when it was broken?
Does inflicting damage on the object apply the remaining damage above the health of the object to humans, if or when it returns?
Is there a Twig left, just broken in half?
Dispelling part of the broken twig does it dissipate the real whole polymorph?

Are there any official decisions on any of the above? If that's true, what are they?

## complexity theory – Is it true that brute force must try ALL possible solutions?

If we look at the NP problems (or NP-Complete and NP-Hard) we have to currently use Brute force to solve them exactly. We are currently looking for "all" possible solutions until we reach a correct solution.

But doesn't that just mean final solution we are trying will be correct? Isn't it unlikely that we should try all of them, no matter if brute force is really necessary or not? It could easily happen that we only have to try to say 30% of all possible solutions until we find a correct solution.

So why do people say brute force must try ALL possible solutions?

## Privacy – Is It Possible To Achieve True Anonimity?

I have been worried for a while now about the complete disregard for privacy and confidentiality by service providers, government agencies and big business! so i was researching and i finally found this question: what is torrent encryption and does it make my traffic anonymous?

After which I realized that encrypting your torrents does not make you safe, not even a little.
I believe everyone should have access to education and information, especially in third world countries like mine, but their ability to do so is a little more hampered every day.

In addition, evidence suggests that private companies hosting VPN servers cannot be trusted as they are subpoenaed or forced to record user activity and therefore actively cooperate with ISPs and forces. l & # 39; order.

That said, I'm actively looking for ways to reduce my footprint and get on with my life (may include the torrent) and I guess asking here can point me to good resources, and it's not just the torrent. , this is the surveillance state that we have to deal with and our data being sold in bulk.

I will start a PiVPN project next week but I doubt it will be enough as I have read that it should not be taken as a complete security measure.
I also know Tor, but the torrent is not recommended on this network either.

Please guide me on this issue.

thank you,