web hosting – From a technical standpoint, why do we have to pay for any domain name?

In terms of the ownership of any domain name, why is it that a person or a company who owns a website and the technology to make the said website work has to pay “extra” money to “rent” a domain name?

Simple.

Do you agree that it is good to have as a property that any single domain name exists only once, that is that there is ONE “owner” of it?

If you agree with this premise I think you can immediately go to the conclusion that to have this property you need someone to enforce it, and have a single database, which is a job of a registry. That means immediately (but still very much in a simplified explanation) that there is a database and people maintaining it.
So you need “money” to pay for the servers and the people running them.
It makes sense to have the people using that service, those registering domain names, to pay for it.
This is a technical standpoint. Domains do not work out of thin air, there is the registration part (database above, communications to it, etc.) and the publication part (hence DNS servers running 100% of the time to have the domain resolving, etc.)

Of course, some could argue that all of this becomes moot if everything is on the blockchain except that 1) this is not how the DNS works today and 2) the blockchain still needs servers and people running them (so if you look at example such as Ethereum Naming Service you will see that domains are not free either, even on the blockchain).

Alternative roots show exactly why the problem is not just technical. Technically it is trivial to have another root. This is the easy part. The hard part, is non technical. Why this alternative root would be any better than current one? You can list a lot of problems with current one, but alternative roots never proved their solution provided something with less problems, they are just different. Internet works in many parts, like routing with BGP or resolution with DNS, by separate people agreeing on some common rules and protocols. The world agreed in the past, in some way, to have Jon Postel run the DNS and then later IANA/ICANN.
Of course when you see today ICANN’s budget and how it grows, you can start to be very reluctant on the idea of paying for a domain name, but thinking that just changing the root changes everything is at best naive.

Do these (domain registrar) companies offer you some kind of protection against DDOS attacks or do they own some kind of more powerful servers to relay connections towards your main server where you host a site?

So this has nothing to do with the descriptions above, you are speaking here about a DNS/Web hosting, where registrars do not provide this service for just their job of domain name registration (they can provide other services of course, but they are separate jobs; being a registrar just means being connected to a registry and send it commands to register domain names and maintain them over time). Historically registries were selling directly to customers (ex: Network Solutions in the eighties and beginning of nineties was the sole seller of .com/.net/.org domains, $70 for 2 years), but then it was seen as a monopoly so for competitive reasons the model was broken to a registry maintaining the central database (see above why that needs to exist) selling names to “a few” registrars that in turn sells to end customers. This is hugely oversimplified of course.

And the last thing, do these companies grow/increase prices for more popular domain names and why?

Pricing is completely in the hand of registries indeed, and even ICANN (for gTLDs) does not impose restrictions on that, except to announce changes to registrars. So you can see everything, some TLDs where prices increase each year or almost each year (see .com/.net), some TLDs where it even goes down sometimes (some registries, in ccTLDs, are non profit organizations so they are bound to have a balanced finance at the end of the day, excess of money can be thrown to foundations or increase salaries, or domain names cost can be lowered), etc.

Also you need to define “more popular”. But registries are free to maintain list of “premium” names and offer them at an higher price to registrars, which then forward this to end customers. This is however set before the domain is bought, the price is not expected to change after (you can find exceptions, and also renewal price is sometimes the same as creation price for premiums, sometimes regular price, it varies).

You will find a lot of places where it is argued that a domain name is just a line in the database, hence inferring that it should cost $0.10 or something, specially at volume. This is VERY shortsighted and often in response to another thing difficult to fathom, which is registries with more domains but costs growing (where normally you can achieve cost reductions by scale). But registries, especially in gTLDs, are not charities. As any other company in a capitalist based economy, their sole goal is first to persist and second to please their investors.

Note also that prices are often used (you are free to agree if that works or not) to deter captive registrations that is people registering names just to resell them. This is why when gTLDs start there is often but not always an EAP or Early Availability Phase where everyone is entitled to register a name (contrary to the sunrise phase before you need to have a trademark for example to be able to register a name) but the prices are far bigger than regular ones, for 5 to 7 days. Regular price can be $10 while first day of EAP the same name can be sold for $10000 for example.

So depending on your views you can find prices either far too big or even too low, and I won’t enter this subject, except by giving just 2 views to take into account: 1) price is not value (hence the second market where prices are not correlated to the price paid at registry or registrar), and 2) a domain name is not just one line in a database (it is not a one time action, it is an ongoing service, the registry authoritative nameservers have to publish the name continuously, respond to queries, sustain DDOS attacks, etc.), not even taking into account the legal part, for example, or support.

google contacts – why-does-gmail-not-find-email-addresses-that-ive-emailed-before – Web Applications Stack Exchange

google contacts – why-does-gmail-not-find-email-addresses-that-ive-emailed-before – Web Applications Stack Exchange

web application – Watering hole Website NTLM Steal Attack

Im trying to recreate a Watering hole SMB theft attack
Where you send a victim a link to your website containing code like “file://ip/file.gif”
Causing Forced Authentication which passes the NTLM hash
I have the code which execute the process (check reference links)

But how can i retrieve/steal the NTLM hash back over the internet remotely without being on local network?

This process can be done locally very easily but im struggling with finding an NTLM listener to use over the internet remotely on a website

Reference:
https://symantec-enterprise-blogs.security.com/blogs/threat-intelligence/leafminer-espionage-middle-east

Newly Discovered Watering Hole Attack Targets Ukrainian, Canadian Organizations


https://unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/xhunt-campaign-new-watering-hole-identified-for-credential-harvesting/

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web part – SharePoint Online – Is it possible to provide custom formatting for Highlighted Content webpart List Layout

Out of the box Highlighted content web part does not support custom JSON formatting.

You can only Choose either of default layout: Grid, List, Filmstrip, or Carousel.

However there is a SPFx web part sample, developed by community members which supports custom HTML templates.

You can find it at: Content Query web part

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amazon web services – How do I download files restored from glacer?

I’ve got an s3 folder with a bunch of files stored on glacier. I’ve already restored them with s3 browser, and they can be downloaded to my pc using s3 browser. However, when I write

aws s3 sync s3://myfolder .

on the server, for which the files are intended, I get a bunch of skips with message

warning: Skipping file s3://myfolder/myfile. Object is of storage class GLACIER. Unable to perform download operations on GLACIER objects. You must restore the object to be able to perform the operation. See aws s3 download help for additional parameter options to ignore or force these transfers.

How do I properly sync this folder?

javascript – Cambiar estado de un botón para interactuar con menu web

Me explico tengo una página web en la que debo interactuar con los elementos de un menu y debo mostrarlos y ocultarlos, en funcion de la opcion que elija en una tabla en una página aparte, en esta tabla cada uno de los items, debería tener dos opciones, activar y desactivar para cada item dado.

Por ejemplo en mi web tengo un menu que tiene varias secciones, la seccion de contactenos, la seccion de noticias y la seccion de blog. si desde este menú deseo mostrar las categorias contactenos y blog en esta página debo elegir que el boton activar de la página de la tabla se muestre y por lo tanto desactivar se oculte.

Por el momento no tengo programado dicho menú web, pero estoy empezando con la página de configuración y quiero programar que me salga la opción de activar o desactivar de forma que después pueda trabajar con esta opción y asignarla a mi menú en otra página.

Tengo este código:

//seleccion ID
    let noticiasCambio = $("a#noticiasActivar");
    let noticiasDesactivar = $("a#noticiasDesactivar");
    let contactoCambio = $("a#contactoActivar");
    let contactoDesactivar = $("a#contactoDesactivar");
    let blogCambio = $("a#blogActivar");
    let blogDesactivar = $("a#blogDesactivar");
    //configuracion de las acciones de los botones
    $(function() {
    //blog
    if ($(blogCambio).length > 0) {
            $('a').click(blogCambio, function(e) {
                e.preventDefault();
                console.log("hola");
                blogCambio.removeClass('btn btn-info').addClass('btn btn-danger').removeAttr('id').attr('id', 'blogDesactivar').html('Activar');
            });
        } else if ($(blogDesactivar).length > 0 && $(blogoCambio).length < 0) {
            $('a').click(blogDesactivar, function(e) {
                e.preventDefault();
                console.log("adios");
                blogDesactivar.removeClass('btn btn-danger').addClass('btn btn-info').removeAttr('id').attr('id', 'blogActivar').html('Desactivar');
            });
        }
    //contacto
    if ($(contactoCambio).length > 0) {
            $('a').click(contactoCambio, function(e) {
                e.preventDefault();
                console.log("hola");
                contactoCambio.removeClass('btn btn-info').addClass('btn btn-danger').removeAttr('id').attr('id', 'contactoDesactivar').html('Activar');
            });
        } else if ($(contactoDesactivar).length > 0 && $(contactoCambio).length < 0) {
            $('a').click(contactoDesactivar, function(e) {
                e.preventDefault();
                console.log("adios");
                contactoDesactivar.removeClass('btn btn-danger').addClass('btn btn-info').removeAttr('id').attr('id', 'contactoActivar').html('Desactivar');
            });
        }
        //noticias
        if ($(noticiasCambio).length > 0) {
            $('a').click(noticiasCambio, function(e) {
                e.preventDefault();
                console.log("hola");
                noticiasCambio.removeClass('btn btn-info').addClass('btn btn-danger').removeAttr('id').attr('id', 'noticiasDesactivar').html('Activar');
            });
        } else if ($(noticiasDesactivar).length > 0 && $(noticiasCambio).length < 0) {
            $('a').click(noticiasDesactivar, function(e) {
                e.preventDefault();
                console.log("adios");
                noticiasDesactivar.removeClass('btn btn-danger').addClass('btn btn-info').removeAttr('id').attr('id', 'noticiasActivar').html('Desactivar');
            });
        }
    });
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<script src="https://code.jquery.com/jquery-3.5.0.js"></script>
</head>
<body>
<div class="col-lg-11">
    <h2>Configuracion</h2>
</div>
<table class="table table-bordered">
    <tr>
        <th>Opciones</th>
        <th width="200px">Acciones</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>
            Blog
        </td>
        <td>
            <a class="btn btn-info" href="" id="blogActivar">Desactivar</a>
        </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>
            Contactenos
        </td>
        <td>
            <a class="btn btn-info" href="" id="contactoActivar">Desactivar</a>
        </td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
        <td>
            Noticias
        </td>
        <td>
            <a class="btn btn-info" href="" id="noticiasActivar">Desactivar</a>
        </td>
    </tr>
    </table>
    </body>
</html>

Pero no funciona de forma adecuada, ya que si pulsas un boton , hace el mismo resultado para los demás botones y a continuación si pulsamos activar nunca funciona.
Como podría conseguir este efecto de forma que depués pudiera seguir trabajando con algún tipo de variable o algo similar para asignarle a mi futuro menú para mostrarlo u ocultarlo?

mysql – Fastest way of updating a spider web of data

I have a large table with over 60 million rows, which has relational data inside of it. I need to update each of these rows to the newest date, of the newest member, including members that that member is a part of. The problem I’m having is my queries are too slow, especially when I need to run them in a loop until everything is updated.

Example:

id type refid reftype timestamp
1 Team 1 Person 2021-04-03
1 Team 2 Person 2021-03-31
2 Team 2 Person 2021-04-01
2 Team 3 Person 2021-04-02
1 Group 1 Team 2021-04-03
2 Group 2 Team 2021-04-05
3 Team 4 Person 2021-03-31

In the above data, all rows except the last one would be updated to “2021-04-05”, because Group 2 contains Team 2, and Team 2 contains Person 2, which is also a member of Team 1, which is a member of Group 1. Same thing would have happened if Person 2 was the newest date. So you can see the confusion and the massive growth of possible connections. In the end I just need to expire anything over a week.

Currently I run a loop of the two queries below until both return 0, but this can take a ton of passes and take over 10+ minutes each time for the second query. I have combined indexes, but It seems the need to process the sheer 16GB data size takes a while. Am I missing something, or is there a better way? Appreciate any help!

update table_name
            left outer JOIN
            table_name AS t2 ON t2.refid = table_name.refid AND t2.reftype = table_name.reftype AND t2.TIMESTAMP >= DATE('2021-04-01')
            set table_name.timestamp = t2.timestamp
            WHERE
            t2.timestamp IS NOT NULL
            AND date(t2.timestamp) > date(table_name.timestamp)
            AND table_name.TIMESTAMP < DATE('2021-04-01');

followed by

update table_name
            left outer JOIN
            table_name AS t2 ON t2.id = table_name.id AND t2.type = table_name.type AND t2.TIMESTAMP >= DATE('2021-04-01')
            set table_name.timestamp = t2.timestamp
            WHERE
            t2.timestamp IS NOT NULL
            AND date(t2.timestamp) > date(table_name.timestamp)
            AND table_name.TIMESTAMP < DATE('2021-04-01');

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