I have already seen it in a number of games. For me, I think the first (and one of the best examples) was Blue Dragon. Start only first, but take turns playing more often than a slow character. This is very similar to an ATB (active time battle) (with Wait = true) BUT turns always occur one after the other (unlike every character having a time bar that runs in real time). And in the example of Blue Dragon, a number of tokens appear in a queue to indicate the probable turn order (this would fluctuate if a character used a faster or slower action than the normal).
Is there a name for this turn-based battle with time simulation in games?
Edit: The closest I've come to a satisfying term for this is a Queue Visual Initiative (which I like), but that comes from TV tropes (Https://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Main/VisualInitiativeQueue)