I don’t think you’re missing anything, unless your jobs pages are undiscoverable (no internal links).
Sounds to me like you probably just need to wait. How long has it been? Google can take days to weeks for search results to “settle”.
Otherwise, Google may have decided that your jobs are not important enough to show. From the Google page you linked:
Important: Google does not guarantee that your structured data will show up in search results, even if your page is marked up correctly according to the Rich Results Test. For a list of common reasons why Google may not show your structured data in search results, see the General Structured Data Guidelines.